lecture09 - INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY LECTURE 9 DESCARTES...

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1 1 LECTURE 9 DESCARTES 2 INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY 2 - Overcome skepticism by - finding the absolutely indubitable basic foundations for knowledge and - showing how they allow us to know other [non- basic] things. DESCARTES’ PROJECT REDUX 3 Suppose that Descartes was right and [A] I am, I exist. [B] I am thinking. and [C] Beliefs about how things currently seem to me. are indubitable. This means we have found the foundations. THE INDUBITABLE FOUNDATIONS
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2 4 BUT we need to build up from the basic foundational beliefs to the nonbasic or superstructural beliefs. How can we build up to the rest of our beliefs? How about using a deductive argument ? That would be a guaranteed way of preserving truth. BUILDING UP FROM THE FOUNDATIONS 1 5 [1] I seem to see a pencil in front of me. [P] _____ [2] There is a pencil in front of me. [From 1] Is this argument deductively valid? Does it help to add more premises about how things appear? BUILDING UP FROM THE FOUNDATIONS 2 6 Unless we can find a way to bridge THE GAP between first-person psychological certainties and conclusions about the world outside of our minds, we can’t be sure about anything else. Descartes tries to show that we can prove that God exists AND that God could not let us be deceived when we do our best to get the truth. THE ADDITIONAL PREMISE
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3 7 "I ought to ask as soon as possible whether there is a God and, if so, whether he can be a deceiver. For it seems that,
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lecture09 - INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY LECTURE 9 DESCARTES...

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