lecture11 - INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY LECTURE 11 SUBSTANCE...

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1 1 LECTURE 11 SUBSTANCE DUALISM INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY 2 Mental states Beliefs (e.g. belief that God exists, belief that the Russian revolution occurred before WWI) Desires (e.g. wanting politics to be uncorrupted by money, desiring to live until 2030) Sensations (e.g. the sensation caused by tasting chocolate, the pain of a 2nd degree burn, the sensation caused by smelling garlic) Emotions (e.g. sadness, elation, pride, fear) The Mind = the thing that has such mental states. THE MIND AND MENTAL STATES 3 Brain States Firing Neurons or Activation Levels The Brain = the physical organ inside the human skull which has these states. THE BRAIN AND BRAIN STATES
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4 Main Questions: [1] What is the relationship between the mind and the brain? [2] What is the relationship between mental properties and physical properties? - Option 1: They are identical. - Option 2: They are not identical. THE MIND-BODY PROBLEM 5 Some (but NOT all) theories of the relationship: [1] Substance Dualism – The mind is a nonphysical thing. Mental states are states of that nonphysical thing. [2] The (Mind-Brain) Identity Theory – The mind is identical to (the same thing as) the brain. Mental states are identical to physical states of the brain. SOME THEORIES OF MIND 6 A physical thing = an individual thing that is composed entirely of those things investigated by physics. A nonphysical thing = an individual thing that is not a physical thing. PHYSICAL AND NONPHYSICAL THINGS
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lecture11 - INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY LECTURE 11 SUBSTANCE...

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