lecture15 - INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY LECTURE 15...

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1 1 LECTURE 15 UTILITARIANISM 1 INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY 2 Prominent defenders of utilitarianism: Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) - Utilitarianism, On Liberty, & The Subjection of Women Both believed many of the social institutions of the time required change because they did not promote human welfare or happiness. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 3 [1] A clear account of what utilitarianism is (Mill, Ch. 2) [2] Consideration of arguments for (Mill, Ch. 4) [3] Consideration of arguments against OUR AIMS
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2 4 Consequentialist Moral Theory – A theory which claims that moral right and wrong are determined only by the value of the consequences of actions. E.g. Utilitarianism Nonconsequentialist Moral Theory – A theory which claims that moral right and wrong are not determined only by the value of the consequences of actions. E.g. Kant's Theory, Rights Theories TWO KINDS OF MORAL THEORY 5 Utilitarian theories have two logically independent parts: [1] A Theory of The Good : A theory of what kinds of states of affairs (ways the world could be) are intrinsically good. [2] Impartial Maximizing Consequentialism : The morally right action in a given situation is that available action which maximizes the total amount of good in the world. Any other action is morally wrong. UTILITARIANISM – GENERAL STRUCTURE 6 An intrinsic good is something good in itself and not in because of its relations to other things. - Pleasure? An extrinsic good is something not good in itself but good because of its ability to produce an intrinsic good.
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