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Soil Properties II

Soil Properties II - Soil Properties II Foundation Design...

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Soil Properties II Foundation Design CE 482
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Soil Stress Total stress: σ = σ ’ + u Where: σ = total stress σ ’ = effective stress u = pore water pressure
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Soil Stress Effective stress: σ ’ = σ – u The vertical component of forces at solid-to-solid contact points over a unit cross-sectional area
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Factors Influencing Strength For all soils Void ratio Confining stress Rate of loading Causing variation among soils Size, shape, gradation
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Typical Test Program Make up two or more test samples all having the same void ratio Place specimens in test apparatus and impose various confining stresses Load each specimen axially until failure
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Results of Normalized Triaxial Tests
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Effect of Confining Stress Focus on Tests 1 and 2 As initial confining stress ( σ v0 ) increases, the peak normalized stress decreases slightly. There is a slight increase in the strain at which this peak occurs The normalized stress in the ultimate condition is more or less independent of σ v0 The volume increase is less in the case of the test with the larger σ v0
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Effect of Confining Stress Results for Tests 1 and 2 make sense because: Soil is frictional – the resistance to sliding at each contact point is proportional to the normal force at that contact, thus overall resistance increases with increasing confining stress Interlocking decreases as the confining stress increases because particles become flattened at contact points, sharp corners are crushed, and particles break
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