101415-Chapter-02-Chemical-Formulas-Composition-Stoichiometry

101415-Chapter-02-Chemical-Formulas-Composition-Stoichiometry

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1 CHAPTER 2 CHEMICAL FORMULAS & COMPOSITION STOICHIOMETRY
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2 Chapter Goals Atoms and Molecules Chemical Formulas Ions and Ionic Compounds Names and Formulas of Some Ionic Compounds Atomic Weights The Mole
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3 Chapter Goals 1. Formula Weights, Molecular Weights, and Moles 2. Percent Composition and Formulas of Compounds 3. Derivation of Formulas from Elemental Composition 4. Determination of Molecular Formulas 5. Some Other Interpretations of Chemical Formulas 6. Purity of Samples
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4 Atoms and Molecules Dalton’s Atomic Theory - 1808 Five postulates 1. An element is composed of extremely small, indivisible particles called atoms. 2. All atoms of a given element have identical properties that differ from those of other elements. 3. Atoms cannot be created, destroyed, or transformed into atoms of another element. 4. Compounds are formed when atoms of different elements combine with one another in small whole-number ratios. 5. The relative numbers and kinds of atoms are constant in a given compound.
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5 Atoms and Molecules A molecule is the smallest particle of an element that can have a stable independent existence. Usually have 2 or more atoms bonded together Examples of molecules H 2 O 2 S 8 H 2 O CH 4 C 2 H 5 OH
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6 Chemical Formulas Chemical formula shows the chemical composition of the substance. ratio of the elements present in the molecule or compound He, Au, Na – monatomic elements O 2 , H 2 , Cl 2 – diatomic elements O 3 , S 8 , P 4 - more complex elements H 2 O, C 12 H 22 O 11 – compounds Substance consists of two or more elements
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7 Chemical Formulas Compound 1 Molecule Contains HCl 1 H atom & 1 Cl atom H 2 O 2 H atoms & 1 O atom NH 3 1 N atom & 3 H
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8 Ions and Ionic Compounds Ions are atoms or groups of atoms that possess an electric charge. Two basic types of ions: Positive ions or cations one or more electrons less than neutral Na + , Ca 2+ , Al 3+ NH 4 + - polyatomic cation Negative ions or anions one or more electrons more than neutral F - , O 2- , N 3- SO 4 2- , PO 4 3- - polyatomic anions
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9 Ions and Ionic Compounds Sodium chloride table salt is an ionic compound
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10 Names and Formulas of Some Ionic Compounds Table 2-3 displays the formulas, charges, and names of some common ions You must know the names, formulas, and charges of the common ions in table 2-3. Some examples are: Anions - Cl 1- , OH 1- , SO 4 2- , PO 4 3- Cations - Na 1+ , NH 4 1+ , Ca 2+ , Al 3+
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Names and Formulas of Some Ionic Compounds Formulas of ionic compounds are determined by the charges of the ions. Charge on the cations must equal the charge on the anions. The compound must be neutral. NaCl
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This note was uploaded on 10/07/2009 for the course ALL 4567 taught by Professor Jhn during the Spring '09 term at CUNY Hunter.

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101415-Chapter-02-Chemical-Formulas-Composition-Stoichiometry

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