ch. 24 - Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Textbook...

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Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Biotechnology/Genetic Engineering Generation of new plant and animal varieties Producing food, resistance Diagnose and treat diseases Forensics Textbook Reading: Chapter 24 Objectives: To have a basic understanding of expression vectors and their applications. To understand the rationale for human gene therapy To understand the use of DNA technology in disease screening and forensics
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Genes can be transferred into cells and the DNA insert can be expressed Gene transfer methods - Cloned genes can be inserted into vectors that contain the necessary sequences for the expression of the gene product as a protein. Requirements a promoter active in the target cell May include an intron and polyadenylation signal - Recombinant expression vectors are introduced into target cells Chemical means (liposomes) As infectious agent (retrovirus/adenovirus) Direct injection (embryos and muscle) - Vary in duration of expression Short term (transient) Long term (stable)
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Biotechnology: agriculture Gene transfer into plants. Goals - Herbicide-resistant strains. - Pest-resistant strains. - Increase nutritional value. - Condition-specific cultivation. Method - Expression vector that is plant cell specific. - Agrobacterium tumifacans with Ti plasmid that is transferred into plant genome (Stable). - Select and grow into mature plant. Success (genetically modified cultivated crops US) - 46% maize - 86% soybeans - 78% cotton Problems - Human consumption (allergic reactions) - Environmental competition and interactions with natural species.
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Bitit’s spots Xeropthalmia Vitamin A deficiency
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Golden Rice
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Biotechnology: pharmaceutical applications Goals - Production of biologically active products. - Low cost compared to biochemical purification.
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ch. 24 - Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Textbook...

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