Patterns probability - Patterns of Inheritance and...

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Unformatted text preview: Patterns of Inheritance and Principles of Probability Content Skills 1. Interpret phenotypic classes using genetic symbols. 2. Represent Parental, F 1 , and F 2 monohybrid and dihybrid crosses using genetic symbols. 3. Apply the sum and product rules of probability in determining genotypic and phenotypic ratios. Process Skills: 1. Calculate and interpret χ 2 values. Introduction Genetic analysis, whether classical or molecular, requires an understanding of patterns of inheritance and rules of probability. The genetic “rules” for understanding inheritance were determined by Gregor Mendel. His work with garden peas allowed him to induce the laws of allele segregation and independent assortment. Mathematical rules of probability support the scientific explanations Mendel proposed for observed patterns of inheritance. Coin Flips Basic Statistical Information: The product rule is applied if you want to know the chance of obtaining x event AND y event (e.g., head and head), and the sum rule is applied if you want to know the chance of obtaining x event OR y event (e.g., head-tail, or tail-head). A . Obtain a penny, flip it 12 times; recording results of heads/tails. 1. How many heads were obtained? 2. How many tails were obtained? 3. What is the chance, or probability (p), of obtaining a head? 4. What is the chance, or probability (p), of obtaining a tail? B . Obtain 2 pennies, flip each one at a time for 12 times, recording results for each penny of head/tail. 1. How many heads were obtained twice? 2. What is the chance, or probability (p), of obtaining heads twice? 3. How many tails were obtained twice? 4. What is the chance, or probability (p), of obtaining tails twice? 5. How many heads-tails were obtained? 6. What is the chance, or probability (p), of obtaining heads-tails? 7. How many tails-heads were obtained? 8. What is the chance, or probability (p), of obtaining tails-heads? C. Flip a penny and a nickel [or dime] simultaneously for 12 times, recording results. 1. How many times were both coins heads? 2. What is the chance, or probability (p), of obtaining heads on both coins? 3. How many times were both coins tails?...
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Patterns probability - Patterns of Inheritance and...

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