bio final study guide 2 - BIO FINAL STUDY GUIDE 1. Who...

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BIO FINAL STUDY GUIDE 1. Who [which groups] and what are the Amniotes? • they have a terrestrially adapted egg which enhanced reproduction on land, internal fertilization and integument (tough outer layer) • Reptilia = scaly skin, many eggs, mostly ectothermic (dependant on external sources for body heat) • Mammalia = endothermic, hair which insulates bodies , mammary glands produce milk 2. Who [which groups] and what are the Tetrapods? • Are jawed vertebrates with 2 pairs of limbs • Amphibia = larvae develop in water, metamorphose into adults ex. frogs, toads, newts • Amniota = terrestrially adapted egg (Reptilia + Mammalia) 3. What groups are included in the Primates? • Lorises, Pottos, Lemurs • Tarsiers • Anthropoids o New World Monkeys o Old World Monkeys • Hominoids (apes) o Gibbons o Ograngutans o Gorillas o Chimps o Humans (Hominids) 4. Who are our closest relatives among the primates? • Chimpanzees because our genomes are 99% identical. They have similar behaviors such as they make and use tools, wage war, learn human sign language, have a self-concept (mirrors) 5. What are the traits (physical and cultural in correct order) that are associated with human evolution. Would an Australopithecine share all these traits (if not, which ones would be). • Erect stance, remolding of foot, pelvis, vertebral column • Enlargement of brain • Prolonged parental care • Stone tools • Fire • Construction of shelters • Language • Art • Music • Writing • Australipithecine only share #1 with humans, Lucy’s brain is the size of
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a softball (= small brain) 6. Know the major Biomes and be able to identify their correct order from pole to pole. • Polar ice, tundra, coniferous forest, temerpate broadleaf forest, temperate grasslands, desert, caparral, high mountains, savanna, tropical forest, savanna, desert, chaparral, temperate broadleaf 7. What outline of questions did Niko Tinbergen pose for ethologists? • How is behavior controlled? • How does behavior develop in the individual? • What is the ecological role of behavior? • How has behavior evolved? 8. Know the major events that happen during meiosis I [e.g. when do homologous chromosomes pair up] • Meiosis = cell division that produces haploid gametes. Result is 4 daughter cells with a single haploid set of chromosomes n = 23 ( half as many chromosomes as parent cell • Interphase = chromosomes duplicate o Meiosis I = tetrads, homologous chromosomes, split up. • Prophase I = chromatins coil up. Synapsis = homologous chromosomes pair up, linking of the replicated homologous chromosomes. Resulting chromosome termed a tetrad (two chromatids from each chromosome, 4-stranded). Chromatids of homologous chromosomes exchange segments in a process called
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bio final study guide 2 - BIO FINAL STUDY GUIDE 1. Who...

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