w09_Disc4KinSelection

w09_Disc4KinSelection - A simple game for the evening Step...

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A simple game for the evening Step 1 . An individual has been given a bag of M&M’s. That person is required to share. However, they get to dictate how much they share. They do so by making an offer to a second person. Step 2 . The second person can accept or reject the offer. If the offer is accepted, both players get the agreed upon M&M’s. If, however, the second player rejects the offer, then the M&M’s revert to me.
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EXAM Results
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Darwin’s Dilemma Darwin’s Dilemma “The re  is  o ne  s pe c ia l diffic ulty, whic h a t firs t a ppe a re d to  m e   ins upe ra b le , a nd a c tua lly fa ta l to  the  who le  the o ry [o f e vo lutio n b y  na tura l s e le c tio n].  “I a llude  to  the  ne ute rs  o r s te rile  fe m a le s  in ins e c t-c o m m unitie s ; fo r  the s e  ne ute rs  o fte n diffe r wide ly in ins tinc t a nd in s truc ture  fro m  b o th the   m a le s  a nd fe rtile  fe m a le s , a nd ye t, fro m  b e ing  s te rile , the y c a nno t  pro pa g a te  the ir kind.” -O n the  O rig in o f S pe c ie s
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Add 150 years, and…. . Ja n. 2009
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Altruism (or cooperation) is the sacrifice of a portion of an individual’s Altruism (or cooperation) is the sacrifice of a portion of an individual’s reproductive success (or fitness) in order to increase that of another reproductive success (or fitness) in order to increase that of another individual’s fitness. individual’s fitness.   The paradox The paradox : If altruism reduces an individual’s fitness, natural selection should select  against the altruistic trait and eventually reduce its representation within a population to zero.  Even if a population started with only altruists , it would be vulnerable to cheating from within: Imagine a single, mutant selfish individual that could exploit the altruistic tendencies  of its neighbors It would gain the benefits of others cooperating, but NOT pay the price (in terms of  reducing its own fitness by cooperating itself) Such a mutant would eventually drive the altruistic trait to extinction. What is altruism, and what is the problem? What is altruism, and what is the problem?
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reduces individual fitness Numerous animals (Vervet monkeys among them) sound alarm calls to warn others about predators, drawing attention to themselves. Multiple males defending a pride of female lions even though the dominant male may get most all of the mating opportunities. Acorn woodpeckers helping their parents to raise a nest of young rather than mating on their own. Ants, termites, bees and other eusocial insects giving
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w09_Disc4KinSelection - A simple game for the evening Step...

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