References that include a section mark (§) are found in the Internet
References Cited section.
By Joseph Gambogi
Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Robin C. Kaiser, statistical assistant, and the world production table was
prepared by Regina R. Coleman, international data coordinator.
The OfFce of the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR) denied
petitions to grant GSP status to imports of unwrought titanium
from Russia and Kazakhstan.
Titanium Magnesium Combine was the major supplier of
titanium sponge to the United States.
petition was submitted in 1997.
Since the time of submittal,
Russia has become a minor supplier of sponge into the United
In a separate action, the USTR deferred a decision
on a petition to remove Russian wrought titanium from the
list of articles eligible for duty-free treatment under the GSP
(American Metal Market, 2003).
.—Titanium mineral concentrates
of economic importance include ilmenite, leucoxene, rutile,
titaniferous slag, and synthetic rutile.
Mining of titanium
minerals is usually performed using surface methods.
and dry mining techniques are used for the recovery of heavy-
mineral sand deposits.
Gravity spirals are used to separate the
heavy minerals suite, while magnetic and high-tension separation
circuits are used to separate the heavy-mineral constituents.
Ilmenite is often beneFciated to produce synthetic rutile or
Although numerous technologies are used to
produce synthetic rutile, nearly all are based on either selective
leaching or thermal reduction of iron and other impurities in
Titaniferous slag with a TiO
content of 75% to 95% is
produced commercially using pyrometallurgical processes.
U.S. mineral concentrate producers were E.I. du Pont
de Nemours & Co. Inc. (DuPont), Iluka Resources Inc. (a
subsidiary of Iluka Resources Ltd.), and Kerr-McGee Corp.
DuPont’s mining operations near Starke, ±L, produced a mixed
product containing ilmenite, leucoxene, and rutile that was used
as a feedstock in DuPont’s TiO
DuPont donated nearly 65 square kilometers of land adjacent to
the Okefenokee Swamp National Wildlife Refuge in Georgia to
The Conservation ±und.
DuPont had acquired the land with the
intent to expand its mining operations into Georgia; however,
the project was suspended in 1997 because of environmental
concerns (E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co. Inc., 2004§).
Iluka’s mining operation near Green Cove Springs, ±L,
produced rutile and ilmenite concentrates using dredging and
dry mining techniques.
At yearend, a project to expand the
feed-rate of the mobile concentrator at Green Cove Springs to
500 metric tons per hour (t/hr) from 350 t/hr neared completion.
Compared with 2002, Iluka’s production of ilmenite and rutile