Minerals Yearbook - 2006 Minerals Yearbook FERROALLOYS U.S....

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2006 Minerals Yearbook FERROALLOYS U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey July 2008
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FERROALLOYS—2006 25.1 FERROALLOYS By John D. Jorgenson, Lisa A. Corathers, Joseph Gambogi, Peter H. Kuck, Michael J. Magyar, John F. Papp, and Kim B. Shedd Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Cheryl J. Crawford, statistical assistant, and the world production table was prepared by Glenn J. Wallace, international data coordinator. Ferroalloys are alloys with iron employed to add chemical elements into molten metal, usually during steelmaking. Ferroalloys impart distinctive qualities to steel and cast iron or serve important functions during production and are, therefore, closely associated with the iron and steel industry, the leading consumer of its products. The leading ferroalloy-producing countries in 2006 were, in decreasing order of production, China, South Africa, Ukraine, Russia, and Kazakhstan (table 6). These countries accounted for 74% of world ferroalloy production. World production of bulk ferroalloys—chromium, manganese, and silicon—was estimated to be 26.3 million metric tons (Mt) in 2006, a 9% increase compared with the revised ± gure for 2005 (table 6). U.S. bulk ferroalloy reported consumption in 2006 was 0.8 Mt of manganese and silicon ferroalloys (table 2) and 0.3 Mt of contained chromium in ferrochromium (table 3). Comparing consumption with that of 2005, ferrochromium remained essentially constant, ferromanganese (including silicomanganese) increased by 5%, and ferrosilicon decreased by 8%. On a gross weight basis, U.S. total ferroalloy imports increased by 13% and exports increased 4%, which resulted in a net import increase of 13% (table 5). Boron, chromium, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, nickel, niobium (columbium), phosphorus, silicon, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, zirconium, and the rare-earth elements are some of the alloying elements used for the characteristics they provide to steels and cast irons (Brown and Murphy, 1985, p. 265). Ferrochromium The major world chromite ore-producing countries in 2006 were India (more than 3 Mt), Kazakhstan (more than 3 Mt), and South Africa (more than 7 Mt). More than 95% of chromite ore production was smelted in electric-arc furnaces to produce ferrochromium for the metallurgical industry. The major world ferrochromium-producing countries were China (more than 1 Mt), Kazakhstan (more than 1 Mt), and South Africa (more than 3 Mt). Russia and India each produced in excess of one-half Mt of ferrochromium. Most of the 7.4 Mt of ferrochromium produced was consumed in the manufacture of stainless steel. The major stainless steel producing areas of the world—Europe (primarily Western Europe and Scandinavia including Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom), Asia (primarily China, Japan, Republic of Korea, and Taiwan) and South America and North America (primarily Brazil and the United States)—accounted for about 80% of world stainless steel production. World stainless steel production exceeded 28 Mt in 2006 and was expected to reach about 29 Mt in 2007.
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Minerals Yearbook - 2006 Minerals Yearbook FERROALLOYS U.S....

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