THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY.
W. D. Richardson.
Geo. P. Adamson, E. G. Bailey, G. E Barton, Wm.
Brady, Wm. Campbell, F. B. Carpenter, Virgil Coblentz,
Francis I. Dupont,
Ebaugh, Wnl. C. Geer,
D. Horne, I,. P. Kinnicutt, A. E. Leach,
Karl Langcnbeck, A. D. Little, P. C. McIlhiuey, E. B.
McCready, Wm. McMurtrie, J. Merritt Matthews, T. J.
Parker, J. D. Pennock. Geo. C. Stone, F.
Ernst Twitchell, Robt. Wahl. M'm. H. Walker, M.
Subscription price to non-members of the
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THE USE OF FERRO-TITANIUM IN BESSEMER
The writer calculated and tested experimentally a
formula for the use of ferro-titanium for Bessemer
rails, to augment the average toughness and ductility
of those of
jo in carbon and 0.096 in phosphorus,
in connection with the New York Central Lines-
1908 specifications. The use of Bessemer rails with
in phosphorus with as low carbon as
mentioned under high-speed trains was not a matter
of choice, but of stern necessity.
It has been the ex-
pectation of Bessemer steel manufacturers and rail-
road officials for some years that owing to the ex-
haustion of the low phosphorus ores basic open-hearth
rails would replace Bessemer, as the latter replaced
iron less than half a century since. Several basic
open-hearth plants have been installed and out of
tps of rails in our tracks 2,000,000
tons are basic open-hearth.
It was generally con-
sidered a simple problem to make the basic open-
hearth rails of even
in carbon, but under
in phosphorus, and still secure immunity from
rail fractures and failures, therefore,
it was expected
by the use of basic open-hearth rails that the fractures
common to Bessemer steel would be eliminated.
The practical results of many fractures and failures
in the new metal modified opinion and
a return to the conditions of manufacture
which must be observed.
The chemical composition of 0.75 to 0.85 in car-
bon, with the accompanying manganese advocated
at first as safe, forms in many cases a eutectic mix-
ture in which the ferrite is apparently all absorbed,
the ductility of the steel being low, hard and sensi-
tive to shocks. The saturation point of the ferrite
by carbon has been considered as
go, but in rails
and tires with the manganese content it seems often
ten to twenty points lower, and traces of cementite
A carbon content of 0.62 to
greater ductility, is considered more reliable in rails
The demand for basic open-hearth rails in 1907
and 1908 was far beyond the capacity of the plants
to fill. Therefore, but few railroads were able to se-
cure sufficient rails of that class of steei ior their re-
quirements and others had to be content with a small
tonnage for trial.
This compelled me to reinstate
former Bessemer principles of practice which had