The use of ferro-titanium in Bessemer rails

The use of ferro-titanium in Bessemer rails - T H E JOURNAL...

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THE JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL AND ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY VOL. 11. JULY, 1910. No. 7 ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY. BOARD OF EDITORS. Editor : W. D. Richardson. Associate Editors. Geo. P. Adamson, E. G. Bailey, G. E Barton, Wm. Brady, Wm. Campbell, F. B. Carpenter, Virgil Coblentz, Francis I. Dupont, W. C. Ebaugh, Wnl. C. Geer, F. Hillebrand, D. Horne, I,. P. Kinnicutt, A. E. Leach, Karl Langcnbeck, A. D. Little, P. C. McIlhiuey, E. B. McCready, Wm. McMurtrie, J. Merritt Matthews, T. J. Parker, J. D. Pennock. Geo. C. Stone, F. 1%'. Traphagen, Ernst Twitchell, Robt. Wahl. M'm. H. Walker, M. C. Whitaker, R. Whitney. Published monthly Subscription price to non-members of the American Chemical Society $6 00 yearly. ~ ______~ ~ - -. __- ~- ~- ~ -~ Vol. 11. JULY, 7 ORIGINAL PAPERS. THE USE OF FERRO-TITANIUM IN BESSEMER RAILS. By P. H. DUDLEY. The writer calculated and tested experimentally a formula for the use of ferro-titanium for Bessemer rails, to augment the average toughness and ductility of those of 0. jo in carbon and 0.096 in phosphorus, in connection with the New York Central Lines- 1908 specifications. The use of Bessemer rails with practically IO in phosphorus with as low carbon as mentioned under high-speed trains was not a matter of choice, but of stern necessity. It has been the ex- pectation of Bessemer steel manufacturers and rail- road officials for some years that owing to the ex- haustion of the low phosphorus ores basic open-hearth rails would replace Bessemer, as the latter replaced iron less than half a century since. Several basic open-hearth plants have been installed and out of about 45,000,ooo tps of rails in our tracks 2,000,000 tons are basic open-hearth. It was generally con- sidered a simple problem to make the basic open- hearth rails of even 0.75 to 0.85 in carbon, but under 0.03 in phosphorus, and still secure immunity from rail fractures and failures, therefore, it was expected by the use of basic open-hearth rails that the fractures common to Bessemer steel would be eliminated. The practical results of many fractures and failures in the new metal modified opinion and it willrequire time for a return to the conditions of manufacture which must be observed. The chemical composition of 0.75 to 0.85 in car- bon, with the accompanying manganese advocated at first as safe, forms in many cases a eutectic mix- ture in which the ferrite is apparently all absorbed, the ductility of the steel being low, hard and sensi- tive to shocks. The saturation point of the ferrite by carbon has been considered as go, but in rails and tires with the manganese content it seems often ten to twenty points lower, and traces of cementite may occur. A carbon content of 0.62 to o,7j, with greater ductility, is considered more reliable in rails as girders. The demand for basic open-hearth rails in 1907 and 1908 was far beyond the capacity of the plants to fill. Therefore, but few railroads were able to se- cure sufficient rails of that class of steei ior their re- quirements and others had to be content with a small tonnage for trial. This compelled me to reinstate former Bessemer principles of practice which had
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The use of ferro-titanium in Bessemer rails - T H E JOURNAL...

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