GEO 102 Chapter Test - Chapter 8: The Dynamic Planet...

GEO 102 Chapter Test
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Chapter 8: The Dynamic Planet MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which layer of the planet forms 80 percent of Earth's total volume, and has an average density of 4.5 grams per cm2? A) oceanic crust B) mantle C) continental crust D) core Answer: B 2) Consider a beach environment with large, powerful waves breaking along the shore. Given the nature of this environment, which of the following sediments would be least likely to be deposited there? A) sand B) silt and clay C) gravel and sand Answer: B 3) Tectonic forces A) erode the surface of the earth B) form sedimentary rock C) control soil formation processes D) warp, fold, and uplift rock Answer: D 4) Continental crust is basically _________, whereas oceanic crust is basically __________. A) thin; thick B) granite; basalt C) basalt; granite D) sima; sial Answer: B 5) The history of life on Earth is chronicled in which type of rock? A) igneous B) sedimentary C) metamorphic Answer: B 6) Which of the following is not true of the metamorphism process? A) It can be accomplished by chemical processes. B) It can be accomplished by pressure. C) It involves melting of the original rock. D) It can be accomplished by heat. Answer: C 7) The Sierra Nevada mountain range in California is an example of A) an exposed batholith B) a lava flow C) an extrusive igneous formation D) a volcano
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Answer: A 8) Uniformitarianism assumes that A) Earth is quite young and is shaped by dramatic events B) mountains, plains, and canyons formed by catastrophic events C) the same physical processes we see today are a key to understanding the processes that have been operating throughout geologic time D) catastrophic episodes have regularly occurred Answer: C 9) The density of material below the Moho is __________ that above it. A) greater than B) the same as C) less than Answer: A 10) What percent of the Earth's crust is composed of only eight natural elements? A) 75 B) 50 C) 99 D) 25 Answer: C 11) Which of the following can occur when seismic waves encounter a layer in the Earth's interior? A) Their speed can change. B) They can be absorbed. C) They can be reflected or refracted. D) All of the above can occur, depending upon the nature of the layer. E) None of the above - seismic waves cannot penetrate below the crust of the Earth. Answer: D 12) Salt is an example of ________ rock. A) extrusive igneous B) intrusive igneous C) sedimentary D) metamorphic Answer: C 13) A batholith forms from A) sediment accumulation in a depression B) metamorphic rock C) extrusive igneous rock D) intrusive igneous rock Answer: D
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14) An assemblage of minerals bound together is called a A) rock B) molecule C) granitic compound D) mineral Answer: A 15) The heat that melted the early Earth was derived from A) radioactive decay B) sunlight C) nuclear fusion D) chemical reactions Answer: A 16) The idea that Earth formed only a few thousand years ago is A) based on little physical evidence and is more appropriately considered a belief
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