Part 1: Confronting the 20th Century : Defining a Contemporary Architecture: 1st Generation Modernism 18th (1700 ʼ s) & 19th (1800 ʼ s) centuries : Age of “Historicism” & “Eclecticism”: What were the conditions of the 19th century built environment that inspired or instigated the development of what is now termed “20th century Modern Architecture”? The challenge of the 20th century: facing the contemporary world & “modernity”. The industrial revolution : the age of the machine and industrial technology : Population movement away from agrarian/farm societies and hand craft & toward the age of the factory, industrial production, mass production, dependency on the machine; Growing faith & dependency in technology, efficiency & rational thinking .... engineering solutions. (3) phenomena became critical issues near the end of the 19th c (1800 ʼ s) : 1. the industrial city : a new phenomenon: *unplanned, uncontroled growth of industrial centers; Chicago, New York, Paris, London, Berlin. *huge population shifts from the countryside to new industrial urban centers new york: 1811: 30,000-1850: 500,000-1905:3.5 million paris:1801: 500,000-1901: 3 million london: 1801:1 million-1900: 6.5 million chicago: 1833: 30,000-1900: 2 million *urban low income working class: “workers” *poor working conditions, child labor, long hours, worker exploitation *the growth of the industrial slum, over crowding, poor sanitation; The absence of building, sanitation, health and planning codes and regulations ; Architects role involved primarily the monumental & culturally significant buildings only.