EE466_L2 & 3 - 5 Quantitative Design Principles...

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Wednesday August 26 and Friday, August 28, 2009 Based in part th Edition 5 Quantitative Design Principles b Quantitative Principles of Design 1. Take advantage of Parallelism 2. Principle of Locality 3. Focus on the Common Case 4. Amdahl’s Law 5. The Processor Performance Equation
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Wednesday August 26 and Friday, August 28, 2009 Based in part th Edition 1. Taking Advantage of Parallelism b Increasing the throughput of a server by using multiple processors or disks b Detailed hardware design s multiple memory banks searched in parallel in a set associative cache b Pipelining – overlap instruction execution to reduce the time to execute a sequence of instructions s there are limits to the benefits to be gained by pipelining
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Wednesday August 26 and Friday, August 28, 2009 Based in part th Edition Pipelining Overview b Not every instruction depends on its immediate predecessor executing instructions completely/partially in parallel possible b Classic 5-stage pipeline: 1) Instruction Fetch (Ifetch), 2) Register Read (Reg), 3) Execute (ALU), 4) Data Memory Access (Dmem), 5) Register Write (Reg)
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Wednesday August 26 and Friday, August 28, 2009 Based in part th Edition Pipelined Instruction Execution I n s t r. O r d e Time (clock cycles) Reg ALU DMem Ifetch Reg Reg DMem Ifetch Reg Reg DMem Ifetch Reg Reg DMem Ifetch Reg Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Cycle 4 Cycle 6 Cycle 7 Cycle 5
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Wednesday August 26 and Friday, August 28, 2009 Based in part th Edition What Limits Pipelining? b Hazards prevent next instruction from executing during its designated clock cycle s Structural hazards : attempt to use the same hardware to do two different things at once s Data hazards : Instruction depends on result of prior instruction still in the pipeline s Control hazards : Caused by delay between the fetching of instructions and decisions about changes in control flow (branches and jumps).
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Wednesday August 26 and Friday, August 28, 2009 Based in part th Edition 2. The Principle of Locality b The Principle of Locality says that a program accesses a relatively small portion of its address space at any instant of time b Two types of locality: s temporal locality: if an item is referenced, it is likely to be referenced again soon s spatial locality: if an item is referenced, it is likely that items with nearby addresses will be referenced soon
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Wednesday August 26 and Friday, August 28, 2009 Based in part th Edition Intuition behind the Principle b Suppose that you are doing a matrix multiply: s Compute C = A × B where A and B are 10 × 10 matrices: for (I = 0; I < 10; i++)
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This note was uploaded on 10/11/2009 for the course EE 466 taught by Professor Conry during the Fall '09 term at Clarkson University .

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EE466_L2 &amp;amp; 3 - 5 Quantitative Design Principles...

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