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Unformatted text preview: Cognitive Class Notes for Exam 2 MEMORY Memory Structures Ebbinghaus the first person to create a forgetting curve 2 different metaphors for memory: 1. The birdcage metaphor for memory your memory can be viewed as giant birdcage calling upon info you know is like going into a birdcage & grabbing a particular bird: Gets at feeling that have with tip of tongue phenomenon = the storehouse model from the tbook Idea = need to be able to locate & grasp your memories Deliberately search 2.Tuning fork analogy for memory tuning fork tunes piano & has partic freq it resonates @ (partic sound) if that strings resonate frequency is same as/similar to vibrating tuning fork, the tuning fork will set off vibration in string Ex. question makes contact with info you already have in head & info starts to vibrate in tune with info youre thinking about now = correspondence metaphor Immediate recollection Memory is a little bit of both :- sometimes have immediate recollection B other times have to deliberately search- sort of like thesis & antithetis, synthesis = a little of both * Memory overlaps with attention & perception Top down approach to perc based on having memories that influence the way you perceive things Learning & mem are roughly analogous Forgetting Curve Ebbinghaus Used Specialized introspection self-memorization of nonsense syllables Created abstraction of new things like what we do every day Pronounceable 3 letter syllables Spent hours a day creating lists of 16 nonsense syllables (consonant vowel consonant nonsense strings) measured how long it took him to memorize each set of syllables Tried to figure out how we remember things over long periods Forgetting curve pp forget about 90% of what learn in a class within about 30 days- if present people with new info & test again within 30 days if have not revisited information will forgot 90%- nonsense words have lots of forgetting within even 1 st hour series deeply engraved in mental as series are repeated, engraved more deeply & indelibly- very blank slate after ever longer intervals, the series phases out Savings in Memorization Really interesting technique for measuring his own performance Would count how many times would have to read over list to himself b4 could repeat list perfectly without looking number of trials @ t1 (time 1) that INITIALLY took him to learn sequence variable intervals would test himself after different intervals of time @ t2, would have forgotten some of it so would have to retrain so would count number of times would have to repeat @ t2 to get back up to 100% Very stringent requirements measured exactly how many trials Took a few less trials to rememorize @ t2: called savings- shows evidence of prior learning episode- have to devote less energy to relearning material @ t2 savings = reciprocal to amount of work have to put in his savings to relearn would have to decrease over time (because gradually forget)...
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This note was uploaded on 10/11/2009 for the course PSYC 1013 taught by Professor Pardo during the Spring '08 term at Columbia.
- Spring '08