Notes_6 - AUXILIARY VIEWS I. Introduction A. Problem:...

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Unformatted text preview: AUXILIARY VIEWS I. Introduction A. Problem: objects often have sloping surfaces that are not represented in true size in principal orthographic Views 1. Sloping plane is not parallel to a principal projection plane 2. True shape must be projected onto a parallel plane 3. Such a parallel plane is known as an auxiliary View B. Types 1. Primary auxiliary view-projected from a principal View 2. Secondary auxiliary View-project from a primary auxiliary View THE AUXILIARY VIEW ®lnclined TOP VIEW i W Perpendicular—v i / Noi’ per— pendieulor‘ l FRONT VIEW FRONT VIEW A. FRONT AND TOP B. FRONT AND AUXILlARY Figure 15.1 A surface that appears as an inclined edge in a principal View can be found true size by an auxiliary View. (A) The top View is foreshortened. (B) The inclined plane is true size in the auxiliary View. C Auxiliary View has same relationship with the view it IS projected from as that of any two adjacent pr1nc1pal VICWS AUXILIARY VS. REGULAR VIEW F Inclined Rotated to this position, Plone the ouxiiiory view becomes Ci Right—Side View FRONT VIEW I A. FRONT 8c AUXILIARY B. FRONT 8: R SIDE V Figure 15.2 An auxiliary View has the with the View it is projected from as tha cent principal views. same relationship t of any two adja- II. Folding-Line Theory A. Auxiliary planes may be thought of planes that fold into principal planes B. Important that reference lines be labeled 1. F--frontal; on plane side 2. H~—horizontal; on plane side 3. P-uprofile; on plane side 4. "1“; on the auxiliary plane side FOLDING-LINE METHOD for primary (firs’r) aux. pl. I A. AUXILIARY B. AUXILIARY C. AUXILIARY FROM FRONT V FROM TOP V FROM PROFILE Figure 15.3 A primary auxiliary plane can be folded from the frontal, horizontal, or profile planes. The fold lines are labeled F4, H—1, and P—l, with 1 on the auxiliary plane side and P on the principal-plane side. 111. Auxiliary Views from the Top View A. Series of auxiliary Views will be seen as Viewpoint is moved around top View of object 1. Each line of sight is perpendicular to the height dimension 2. Height dimension is true length for all Views projected from top View B. Line of sight for each auxiliary View is parallel to horizontal projection plane VIEWPIONT S FOR AUXILIARY VIEWS PROJECTED FROM THE TOP VIEW Position ' four Hawk Position one Figure 15.4 By moving your viewpoint around the top View of an object, you will see a series of auxiliary views in which the height dimension (H) is true length. C. Folding-Line Method 1. A surface must appear as an edge in a principal View before it can be found true size in primary auxiliary View 2. Draw line of sight perpendicular to edge View of inclined surface 3. Draw the H-1 line parallel to edge 4. Draw H-f reference line between top and front Views 5. Project edge View of inclined surface parallel to line of sight 6. Transfer H dimensions from front View to locate an auxiliary View of a line 7. Locate corners of inclined surface by projecting to auxiliary View AUXILIARY VIEW FROM TOP VIEW FRONT i Figure 15.6 Auxiliary view from the top: Required Find the true—size view of the inclined surface. Step 1 Draw the line of sight perpen- Step 2 Project from the edge view of Step 3 Locate the other corners of the dicular to the edge view of the inclined the inclined surface parallel to the line inclined surface by projecting to the surface. Draw the H—-1 line parallel to of sight. Transfer the H dimensions auxiliary view. Locate the points by the edge. Draw the H—F reference line from the front view to locate an auxil- transferring the height dimensions (H) between the top and front views. iary view of a line. from the front view to the auxiliary view. IV. Rules of Auxiliary View Construction A. Auxiliary View must be projected from edge View of the surface to find true size 1. Normally the inclined surface is all that is included in auxiliary View 2. Entire object can be drawn in auxiliary View if needed B. Reference (fold) lines drawn as thin black lines 1. Use 2H or 3H pencil C. Label reference plane D. Number points in all views 1. Label points with guidelines E. Draw reference line between given Views F. Transfer dimensions from principal Views to auxiliary Views RULES FOR DRAWING AUXILIARY VIEWS Parallel 1.Line of sigh}L is 3 perpendicular to 2 edge of plane. ~Z~ 2.Reference line is parallel to edge; draw as 2H line. 3.Label reference plane as H—-|. 4.Number points in all views. 5.Draw ref. line (H—F) between the given views. ""‘I136.Transfer height dimensions from front to auxiliary v. pts. with FRONT V guidelines Figure 15.8 Apply these rules when drawing auxiliary views. Use thin black lines for reference lines and light gray construction lines (just dark enough to show) for projec— tors. Use guidelines, label points on the views, and iabei the fold lines. V. Auxiliary Views from the Top View A. Height dimension in frontal plane is same as in auxiliary View B. Reference Plane Method 1. Horizontal reference plane is drawn through front View 2. Thus height dimensions can be conveniently transferred from front View to auxiliary View REFERENCE-PLANE METHOD FRONT V A. SYMMETRICAL: B. ASYMMETRlCAL: PLANE THROUGH PLANE THROUGH OBJECT BASE OF PART Figure 15.13 A horizontal reference plane (HRP) can be positioned through the part or in contact with it. The dimension of height (H) is measured from the HRP and transferred to the auxiliary View. REFERENCE—PLANE METHOD HRP passes through base of obiect. Horizontal Reference Plane HRP FRONT VIEW Figure 15.14 An auxiliary View projected from the top view is used to draw a true-size View of the inclined sur— face using a horizontal reference plane. The HRP is drawn through the bottom of the front View. VI. Auxiliary Views from the Front View A. Moving about front View indicates that you are Viewing parallel to edge View of frontal plane 1. Depth dimension is true size in auxiliary Views from front View 2. One position yields the principal Viewurightside View VIEWS PROJECTED FROM THE FRONT VIEW Position 2 Position 1 Depth appears TL in all views projected from -,' the front View. R side Position 3 View Position 4 Figure 15.15 By moving your viewpoint around the frontal View of an object, you will see a series of auxiliary views in which the depth dimension (D) is true length. B. Folding line method 1. Any edge in front View will be true size in an auxiliary View that is projected perpendicular to it 2. Draw line of sight perpendicular to edge of plane 3. Draw the F—1 reference parallel to the edge 4. Draw the H—F fold line between the top and front Views 5. Project perpendicularly from the edge View of inclined surface and parallel to the line of sight 6. Use depth dimension transferred from top View to locate a line in auxiliary View 7. Locate the other corners of inclined surface by projecting to the auxiliary View AUXILIARY VIEW FROM THE FRONT VIEW —- 2.Tronsfer D l from Top View D to Auxiliary ‘ Vlew. LSIght parpen— .— H dlcular to edge: H D H F—l reference plane F i F parallel to edge. ) D 3.Transfer D\(/ 3 \ other depth (°\\e dimensions to FRONT FRONT Q0 Auxiliary View. FRONT Figure 15.17 Auxiliary from the front—folding-line method: Step1 Draw the line of sight perpen- Step2 Project perpendicularly from Step3 Locate the other corners of dicular to the edge of the plane and the edge View of the inclined surface the inclined surface by projecting to draw the F—1 reference parallel to the and parallel to the line of sight. Use the auxiliary View. Locate the points edge. Draw the H—F fold line between the depth dimensions (D) transferred by transferring the depth dimensions the top and front views. from the top View to locate a line in (D) from the top to the auxiliary View. the auxiliary view. C. The use of an auxiliary View can eliminate the need for a complete top View or side View 1. In such cases partial Views can be used for the t0p or side View 2. Note the auxiliary View will show the surface’s true size AUXILIARY VIEW FROM THE FRONT VIEW Top View is drawn l ’0 / as a partial view T '5? TOP VIEW Side View is drown as 0 partial View D—-—-i n..- P FRONT VIEW R SIDE V Figure 15.19 The layout and construction of an auxiliary View of the object shown in Fig. 15.18 is shown here. D. Reference-Plane Method 1. Helpful to locate the reference plane through the center of top View a. all depth dimensions can be located on each side of frontal reference plane 2. Reference plane is labeled FRP in top and auxiliary Views 3. In auxiliary View FRP is drawn parallel to the edge View of the inclined plane in front View 4. Depth dimensions are transferred from the FRP in top View to the FRP in auxiliary View AUXILIARY VIEW BY FRONTAL REFERENCE-PLANE METHOD Forashori‘ened View (not TS) Frontal Ref. Plane True Size TOP VIEW FRONT VIEW Figure 15.21 Because the inclined surface of this part is symmetrical, it is helpful to use a frontal reference plane (FRP) that passes through the object. Project the auxiliary View perpendicularly from the edge View of the plane in the front View. The FRP appears as an edge in the auxiliary View, and depth dimensions (D) are transferred from each side of it in the top view to locate points on the true-size view of the inclined surface. VII. Auxiliary View from the Profile View A. Moving about profile View indicates that you are Viewing parallel to edge View of profile plane 1. Width dimension will appear as true size in each auxiliary View projected from the side View 2. One position will yield principal VlCW--fl‘01’lt View 3. One position will yield a true size View of an inclined plane VIEWPOINTS FOR VIEWS PROJECTED FROM THE PROFILE VIEW Position 1 Width appears TL in all views proiected from the profile view. Position 3 Position 4 Figure 15.22 By moving your viewpoint around a profile (side) view of an object, you will obtain a series of auxiliary views in which the width dimension (W) is true length. VIEWS PROJECTED FROM THE PROFILE VIEW \ Width (W) is TL in any View proiected from lha side View. Pos. Figure 15.23 The auxiliary views shown in Fig. 15.22 would be seen in this arrangement when projected from the side view. B. Folding-Line Method 1. Any edge in profile View will be true size in an auxiliary View that is projected perpendicular to it 2. Draw line of sight perpendicular to edge of plane 3. Draw the P—l reference parallel to the edge 4. Draw the F—P fold line between the front and side views 5. Project perpendicularly from the edge View of inclined surface and parallel to the line of sight 6. Use width dimension transferred from front View to locate a line in auxiliary View 7. Locate the other corners of inclined surface by projecting to the auxiliary View AUXILIARY VIEW FROM THE SIDE 1VIEW |.Sight per-d 2.Tronsfer W 3.Tronsfer pendiculor from Front W other W to edge: View to dimen— P—l refer— Auxiliary sions to enca plane View. parallel to edge. Auxiliary View. FRONT V R SIDE V FRONT V R SIDE V Figure 15.24 Auxiliary from the side—~folding-line method: Step 1 Draw a line of sight perpen- dicular to the edge view of the inclined surface. Draw the P—1 fold line parallel to the edge View, and draw the F—P fold line between the given views. Step 2 Project the corners of the edge view parallel to the line of sight. Transfer the W dimensions from the front view to locate a line in the auxiliary View. Step 3 Find the other corners of the inclined surface by projecting to the auxiliary view. Locate the points by transferring the width dimensions (W) from the front view to the auxil- iary View. C. Reference~Plane Method 1. Inclined surfaces in profile View may be drawn true size in an auxiliary View by using a profile reference plane (PRP) 2. PRP is a vertical edge in front View 3. Draw PRP through center of front View for symmetry 3. In auxiliary View PRP is drawn parallel to the edge View of the inclined plane in profile View 4. Width dimensions are transferred from the PRP in front View to the PRP in auxiliary View PROFILE REFERENCE PLANE Line of sight is parallel to PRP and perpendicular to the inclined plane CL Profile “ l in: Ref. plane 9' :§ '7 . ed a» «A [>0 $9 FRONT V R SIDE V Figure 15.25 An auxiliary view is projected from the right- side view by using a profile reference plane (PRP) to show the true—size View of the inclined surface. VIII. Auxiliary Views of Curved Shapes A. Curved shapes will appear as an edge in a principal View 1. Other principal Views may not offer a true size representation of curved shape 2. Auxiliary View can supplement drawing by providing a true size View of curved shape B. Utilize a centered reference plane to assist in making auxiliary View 1. Locate points about perimeter of curved surface 2. Project points onto auxiliary View FRONTAL REFERENCE PLANE Line at sight is parallel to the FRP a: perpendicular to the inclined plane FRONT VlEW R SIDE VIEW Figure 15.26 The auxiliary view of this elliptical surface was found by locating a series of points about its perime- ter. The frontal reference plane (FRP) is drawn through its center in the side view since the object is symmetrical. IRREGULAR SURFACE TOP VIEW Q Look , perpendicular: to edge of; ' plane : FRONT VIEW Figure 15.27 The auxiliary view of this curved surface required that a series of points be located in the top viewr be projected to the front view, and then projected to the auxiliary view. The FRP was passed through the top view. IX. Partial Views A. Auxiliary views can supplement information contained in principal views 1. Often done when principal view fail to clearly reveal all relevant features in an object B. Partial views with portions omitted can be used to represent objects. 1. Such partial views are easier to draw 2. Such partial views can offer a sufficient description without any appreciable clarity loss PARTIAL VIEWS FRONT VIEW Figure 15.28 Partiai views with foreshortened portions omitted can be used to represent objects. The FRP refer- ence line is drawn through the center of the object in the top view because the object is symmetrical to make point location easier. X. Auxiliary Sections A. Section Views can be draw on auxiliary views to augment information contained in auxiliary views AUXILKARY SECTIONS SECTION A—A REVOLVED SECTION Figure 15.29 A cutting plane labeled A—A is passed through the object and the auxiliary section, section A—A. is drawn as a supplementary view to describe the part. The top and front views are drawn as partial views. XI. Secondary Auxiliary Views A. Secondary auxiliary View is drawn from a primary auxiliary View 1. Edge in primary auxiliary View can be projected to true size in secondary auxiliary View 2. Reference line between primary and secondary auxiliary line is denoted by 1-2 SECONDARY AUXILIARY AND PARTIAL VIEWS TOP ViEW All views are por’rioi views The Primary Aux— iliary is proiec’red from ihe iop view: the Secondary Auxiliary is pro— jecied from ihe FRONT V‘Ew Primary Auxiliary. Figure 15.31 A secondary auxiliary view projected from a primary auxiliary view that was projected the top view is shown here. All views are drawn as partial views. ...
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Notes_6 - AUXILIARY VIEWS I. Introduction A. Problem:...

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