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Ap%20Practice%20Exam - The Exam PSYCHOLOGY Two hours are...

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Unformatted text preview: The Exam PSYCHOLOGY Two hours are allotted for this examination: 1 hour and l0 minutes for Section I, which consists of multiple-choice questions; and 50 minutes for Section II, which consists of essay questions. Section I is printed in this examination booklet; Section II essay questions are printed in a separate booklet. SECTION I Time —— 1 hour and 10 minutes Number of questions ~— l007 Percent of total grade —— 66 E This examination contains 100 multiple—choice questions. Therefore, please be careful to fill in only the ovals that are preceded by numbers 1 through 100 on your answer sheet. ' General Instructions DO NOT OPEN THIS BOOKLET UNTIL YOU ARE INSTRUCTED TO DO SO. INDICATE ALL YOUR ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS IN SECTION I ON THE SEPARATE ANSWER SHEET. No credit will be given for anything written in this examination booklet, but you may use the booklet for notes or scratchwork. After you have decided which of the suggested answers is best, COMPLETELY fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet. Give only one answer to each question If you change an answer, be sure that the previous mark is erased completely.‘ Example: Sample Answer Chicago is a ®.©@® (A) state (B) city (C) country (D) continent (E) village Many candidates wonder whether or not to guess the answers to questions about which they are not certain. In this section of the examination, as a correction for haphazard guessing, one—fourth of the number of questions you answer incorrectly will be subtracted from the number of questions you answer correctly. It is improbable, therefore, that mere guessing will improve your score significantly; it may even lower your score, and it does take time. If, however, you are not sure of the best answer but have some knowledge of the question and are able to eliminate one or more of the answer choices as wrong, your chance of getting the right answer is improved, and it may be to your advantage to answer such a question. ' Use your time effectively, working as rapidly as you can without losing accuracy. Do not spend too much time on questions that are too difficult. Go on to other questions and come back to the difficult ones later if you have time. It is not expected that everyone will be able to answer all the multiple-choice questions. meafixzmMaw/um”:Wramwmwwéwwwfiawwfimfliflmzz‘o‘sfiawxy/MZ;WRWWwWW/thfixfizwwwxflflflfi’za Mammy»sreams;svmvzmwzmemizaateszwewumsm (as. 2004 AP Psychology Released Exam Excerpt 1 , . 1(6an waswwwam:wmgr/x47wmamewoymwwmm,w«szwtmu. PSYCHOLOGY SECTION I Time—1 hour and 10 minutes 100 Questions Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the one that is best in each case and then fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet. 1. The longer an individual is exposed to a strong 4. An individual survives a period of captivity odor, the less aware of the odor the individual and exhibits behaviors that include anxiety, becomes. This phenomenon is known as sensory inability to concentrate, depression, edginess, and the reexperience of stressful events. These (A) acmty symptoms illustrate which of the following (B) adaptation disorders? (C) awareness (D) reception (A) Generalized anxiety (E) overload (B) Major depression (C) Hypochondriasis 2. Which type of psychologist would be interested (D) Histrionic primarily in studying whether people behave (E) Posttraumatic stress differently in groups than they do when alone? ' 5. Which of the following theoretical frameworks would argue most strongly that a healthy child will choose what is good for his or her growth? (A) Experimental (B) Cognitive (C) Developmental (D) Social (A) Social learning theory (E) Clinical (B) Psychoanalytic , (C) Behavioral 3. The basic purpose of the DSM-IV-TR is to (D) Humanistic (A) provide a set of diagnostic categories for (E) Psychodynamic classifying psychological disorders (B) provide a clear distinction between neurosis and psychosis (C) describe the psychoanalytic approach to 6. The ability to choose specific stimuli to learn about, while filtering out or ignoring other information, is called psychological disorders (A) selective attention (D) describe internal personality factors that are (B) subliminal perception involved in psychological disorders (C) time-sharing (E) identify childhood experiences that contribute (D) masking to psychological disorders (E) shadowing 4orawarm-wag:Mamas/7mmmam/Mm:swamgawzmmgmwwnwmamiwz memmvwwim r mam WzzisyaiicmmewmaVawmmwwmwmmwzwxawmwaee mimnwmmw «wavwmwaw» {mfikfim ierrvam/rmwm ¢MWOW«. 2 2004 AP Psychology Released Exam Excerpt 7. A two-year—old child is frightened by a small dog. 9. Rudolph spends hours painting in his studio, A few weeks later the same child sees a cat and even though he sells few pictures. Which of becomes frightened. The child’s reaction is most the following explains Rudolph’s creative likely an example of which of the following? productivity? (A) Stimulus discrimination (A) Functional fixedness (B) Second—order conditioning (B) Inductive reasoning (C) Stimulus generalization (C) Intrinsic motivation (D) Sensory preconditioning (D) Incubation (E) Spontaneous recovery (E) Heuristics 8. A researcher asks elementary, junior high, senior high, and college students to define the term “cheating,” and analyzes differences in their definitions across age groups. This is an example of which type of study? (A) Longitudinal (B) Sequential (C) Cross—sectional (D) Case study (B) Observational we tzmawm:2mmmmam/1,2wanwmzmgmmwwwym’afisezmwwzmammm«aMam/warmraw/WsmW«wemmam/Manammvmmmam'smwe:maamammamimmmzymmxmmwmwmymeynmnwimmammmam éfimfiwwzwc’ani‘msflzmm 2004 AP Psychology Released Exam Excerpt 3 Questions 10-12 refer to the following definitions. Each definition can be used once, more than once, or not at all. 10. ll. 12. (A) Prototype matching to organize information into categories (B) Maintaining information in memory through repetition (C) Differential treatment, usually negative, based on group membership (D) Recognizing an object as distinct from its surroundings (E) Learning to respond differently to similar stimuli Which is a definition of discrimination that most directly applies to perception? (A) A (B) B (C) C (D) D (E) E Which is a definition of discrimination that most directly applies to classical conditioning? (A) A (B) B (C) C (D) D (E) E Which is a definition of discrimination that most directly applies to social psychology? (A) A (B) B (C) C (D) D (E) E 3mmzlmw“newa‘tmaxmrmz/I‘(M/r/W3:212{Wmmmmfisrtbméwwmmewmxmar 4 l3. 14. 15. 16. Contemporary definitions of abnormality might include all of the following criteria EXCEPT (A) maladaptiveness (B) personal distress or discomfort (C) deviance from cultural norms (D) gender (E) statistical prevalence The correlations between the IQ scores of identical twins reared apart are lower than those of identical twins reared together. This difference is best explained by which of the following? (A) Heredity plays an important role in deter- mining IQ. (B) Environment plays an important role in determining IQ. (C) Heredity plays no role in determining IQ. (D) Environment plays no role in determin— ing IQ. (E) Heredity and environment play an equal role in determining IQ. A test that fails to predict what it is designed to predict lacks (A) standardization (B) norms (C) fairness (D) validity (E) reliability Neurosurgeons cut the corpus callosum in the brain disrupting communication between the right and left hemispheres to (A) prevent the spread of epileptic seizures (B) reduce anxiety attacks and phobic reactions (C) reduce the incidence of violent behaviors (D) treat schizophrenia (E) reduce mood swings AnflWfiW“avatar/AKi1winaW’flrmkmarmmfinmflmmtmflfltztam :MW/mfimwzmmanm; vac/2.1292; weave»zmmamxwzzmnww. 2004 AP Psychology Released Exam Excerpt 17. 18. 19. 20. Keisha was able to roll over at two months, crawl at five months, and walk at ten months. This sequence of development is most likely due to (A) egocentrism (B) social context (C) maturation (D) attachment (E) assimilation A psychologist is attempting to get Wade, an 8—year-old autistic boy, to make eye contact when she speaks to him. She gives Wade a piece of candy every time he looks at her face. This treatment illustrates which of the following therapeutic approaches? (A) Cognitive (B) Biological (C) Psychodynarnic (D) Humanistic (E) Behavioral Which of the following forms of therapy most likely involves a confrontational atmosphere between the therapist and the client? (A) Rational-emotive therapy (B) Psychoanalysis (C) Aversive conditioning (D) Person—centered therapy (E) Systematic desensitization A person who has a brain injury is having difficulty seeing and hearing. These symptoms indicate that damage has occurred in the (A) parietal and occipital lobes (B) occipital and temporal lobes (C) frontal and temporal lobes (D) temporal lobe only (E) frontal lobe only 2004 AP Psychology Released Exam Excerpt 21. 22. 24. «wiwvm/wmmrmma2ma1Mamzon»y/mmwzéwxwma'mmamsmwmz: uwwam»~um.wswzym mmmmzmmmaMnuwmwmmzwz: wwswmammgwwmamiwwaamwz7/4>amiwmmwwmsmmmmawmzammmmammeamfl Individuals who accept personal responsibility for their life experiences may be characterized as having (A) unrealistic expectations (B) delusions of grandeur (C) an internal locus of control (D) a pessimistic view of reality (B) an introverted personality A student participates in a month—long sleep study designed to examine free-running circadian rhythms. If all time cues are removed, the student’s total sleep-wake cycle is likely to (A) average about 25 hours (B) average about 12 hours (C) average whatever it had averaged when the student began the study (D) become even more dependent than usual on the student’s activity level (E) become extremely variable , If the variance of a set of scores is 100, the standard deviation will be (A) 5 (B) 10 (C) 25 (D) 50 . (E) 125 The overall purpose of psychoanalytic therapy is to (A) change the behavior patterns of the client in therapy (B) help the client in therapy reach his or her full potential (C) alter the thought processes of the client in therapy (D) help the client in therapy gain new insight into himself or herself (E) help the client in therapy get rid of irrational thoughts 25. 26, 27. 28. 29. mm;mm”mmm»mmrem:mwsasx‘awwwwmmwmemymsamuwmmaemmwawmwmywammmmmamwmwmmWW saxwéxsa' >asWwe»;saw;magma;mam/m:awzzmwwmwmmrmvwmmmrmemémwv . 6 For a language test with normally distributed scores, the mean was 70 and the standard devi- ation was 10. Approximately what percentage of test takers scored 60 and above? (A) 16 (B) 34 (C) 68 (D) 84 (E) 95 Which of the following are most involved in the action potential of a neuron? (A) Calcium and sodium (B) Sodium and potassium (C) Potassium and calcium _ (D) Chloride and calcium (E) Chloride and sodium Which of the following would be used to measure the relationship between age and reaction time? (A) Correlation (B) Central tendency (C) A histogram) (D) Standard deviation (E) A ttest Which component of the limbic system has an essential role in the formation of new memories? (A) Amygdala (B) Hippocampus (C) Pituitary gland (D) Hypothalamus (E) Thalamus The human vestibular sense is most closely associated with the (A) skin (B) semicircular canals (C) taste buds (D) olfactory bulb (E) rods and cones 30. A central nervous system depressant that produces 3 32. '9.) U.) l. a false feeling of well—being and efficiency and results in slower reaction time to stimulation is (A) cocaine (B) marijuana (C) dopamine (D) alcohol (E) nicotine Of the following research methods, which can best establish a cause-and-effect relationship? (A) Naturalistic observation (B) A survey (C) A test (D) A case study (B) An experiment A researcher dabs color on a 16—month—old child’s face and places the child in front of a mirror. Which of the following developmental milestones has been reached if the child realizes that there is something wrong with its face? (A) Visual discrimination (B) Recognition of a human form (C) Recognition of self (D) Identification of the gender of the image (E) Perception of the image as a playmate . A monkey is conditioned to flinch at the sound of a hell that was previously paired with a puff of air to the monkey’s cheek. Which of the following explanations would be consistent with a cognitive (interpretation of this conditioning? (A) The animal cannot control its tendency to flinch because the response of flinching is simply a reflex to the bell. (B) The strength of the flinch response is a function of the time interval between the onset of the bell and the air puff. (C) The monkey interprets the bell as a signal that the air puff will follow. (D) The bell is merely a substitute stimulus for the air puff. (E) Monkeys are intelligent and know that they should flinch when they hear tones that are paired with stimuli that elicit reflexes. waterway/«mm; 2004 AP Psychology Released Exam Excerpt 34. Alfred Binet’s most important contribution to 35. 36. psychology was in the area of (A) intelligence testing (B) visual perception (C) psychopathology (D) comparative psychology (E) classical conditioning Which of the following is most likely to characterize the behavior of students who have high achievement motivation and are intrinsically motivated to play a musical instrument? (A) If promised a reward for practicing a difficult piece of music selected by the teacher, they will practice more than if they selected the piece by themselves. (B) If permitted to choose their own pieces of music, they will select very difficult ones that are beyond their present ability to play. (C) If permitted to choose their own pieces of music, they will select easy pieces that they can master in one practice session. (D) If permitted to choose their own pieces of music, they will select moderately difficult pieces that they can master if they practice them conscientiously. (E) They will enjoy practicing the piano more if their parents promise them a reward for mastering each piano piece. Which of the following is considered an explana— tion of why bystander intervention is less likely to occur if there is a large number of witnesses to a crime? (A) Prejudice (B) Social facilitation (C) Diffusion of responsibility (D) Group polarization (E) Self-efficacy 37. 38. 39. A student who strongly believes that genetic influence is the major contributor to human personality is analyzing data gathered about identical twins who had been separated at birth and reunited in adulthood. The student observes many striking similarities in personality and habits within the twin pairs but does not notice differences within the twin pairs that might argue against the student’s belief. This students behavior illustrates which of the following? (A) Confirmation bias (B) The availability heuristic (C) An algorithmic error (D) Metacognition (E) A mnemonic A schema can be described as (A) an outer layer of the eye (B) a mental construct (C) a fissure between lobes of the brain (D) an optical illusion (E) a fixed response to a particular stimulus John Garcia showed that when rats ingested a novel substance before becoming nauseated from radiation or drugs, they acquired a (A) conditioned taste preference for the substance (B) generalized taste preference for similar substances (C) conditioned taste aversion for the substance (D) conditioned taste aversion for any novel substance (E) conditioned taste preference for any novel substance meme/mimeMme-emmam/mac:as)«mawWmarhmgmummetirzzmmwrammwzmmmmw mww magma; izwzwmxcrmmwa:w!7/a*AWm»;Vacs:vmmwé‘wmwflieflszWWWMIW/Mum fifiafizfi‘9’11WfixWM€02Y4kWflYM/WWMZW:2¢Alt}zm;wwfl°4fiifl 2004 AP Psychology Released Exam Excerpt 7 40. 41. 42. 43. Which of the following is a possible reason why cats can see better at night than can humans? (A) Cats have a higher proportion of rods to cones. (l3) Cats’ pupils can contract to a smaller opening. (C) Cats have a smaller blind spot. (D) Cats have a larger optic nerve tract. (E) The visual cortex of cats is located farther forward in the cortex. Which of the following reflects the inborn and stable rudiments of personality, such as excitability? (A) Imprinting (B) Social referencing (C) lndividuation (D) Temperament (E) Accommodation After seeing her parents give her brother a dollar for cleaning his room, Sarah begins cleaning her own room. According to social-learning theorists, Sarah’s behavior is an example of which of the following? (A) Classical conditioning (B) Spontaneous recovery (C) Stimulus generalization (D) Discrimination training (E) Observational learning In Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, living up to one’s potential and striving for personal fulfillment are referred to as (A) biological needs (B) aesthetic needs (C) physiological needs (D) belonging needs (E) self-actualization needs 8 44. 46. 47. The technique of assessing personality by asking a person to make up a story based on a picture presented by the researcher is an example of which of the following types of tests? (A) Trait/type (B) Projective (C) Forced choice (D) Simulation (E) Personality inventory . John B. Watson was a pioneer in which of the following perspectives of psychology? (A) Biological (B) Functionalism (C) Psychoanalytic (D) Structuralism (E) Behaviorism Which of the following is considered the fundamental building block of the nervous system? (A) Nucleus (B) Neuron (C) Synapse (D) Neurotransmitter (E) Electrical impulse The psychological effects of alcohol are powerfully influenced by the user’s (A) expectations (B) success in developing a social network (C) agility (D) intelligence quotient (IQ) (E) brain dopamine level mwsaamxrmmwmzzmwmmwmmaa mwm-zmzmwxrwn seam”651;.eWJwawmmflin‘vfifiz’r’cslsszm'h/WWMMV7,».awflmmwzawewz‘iwwzavfi'W/wmmiznmme:9%{new6t:Am”AmflwflhbflMax(2k?aWiWfl}%Méx§W4flfiWMfi$fi2wat«mmamwflwzfiufiwfizwflmm,. 2004 AP Psychology Released Exam Excerpt 48. 49. 50. Solomon Asch’s findings on conformity might best be used to explain why (A) members of a family all like the taste of bananas (B) adolescents follow fads in dress and hairstyle (C) people are less likely to accept blame for their failures than to accept credit for their successes (D) bystander intervention is more likely to occur when few, rather than many, bystanders are present (E) performance is enhanced in the presence of others The humanistic perspective in psychology suggests that (A) most behavior can be explained by operant conditioning principles (B) all humans have peak experiences (C) all humans are by nature good (D) humans are doomed to a life of neurosis and suffering (E) self—actualization can happen only through therapy ‘ The human brain differs from the brains of most other animals by the relative amount of brain mass devoted to which of the following? (A) The occipital lobe (B) The cerebellum (C) The cerebral cortex (D) The homunculus (E) The pituitary gland ,mmwmymzawam2mum 2004 sychology Relea. e 51. 52. 53. — Which of the following is an example of retrograde amnesia? (A) Ty cannot recall the face of the thief he saw running from the scene of the crime. (B) Cassie’s vivid memory of the explosion of ‘ the space shuttle Challenger is not corrob- orated by those she was with at the time. (C) Alberto is unable to remember anything since the accident that destroyed portions of his hippocampus. (D) Katie attributes her poor performance on a standardized test to the fact that she took the exam in a room other than the one in which she learned the material. (B) Alyse cannot remember any details of what happened right before her car accident. An individual who sees and feels imaginary spiders crawling on his arms and legs is experiencing (A) a fixation (B) a hallucination (C) an illusion (D) an eidetic image (E) a phobia Research indicates that many animals are more likely to associate sickness with a taste they experienced in conjunction with the illness than with a tone or light. Th...
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