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Unformatted text preview: Advanced Placement Program AP® English Language and Composition Practice Exam The questions contained in this AP® English Language and Composition Practice Exam are written to the content specifications of AP Exams for this subject. Taking this practice exam should provide students with an idea of their general areas of strengths and weaknesses in preparing for the actual AP Exam. Because this AP English Language and Composition Practice Exam has never been administered as an operational AP Exam, statistical data are not available for calculating potential raw scores or conversions into AP grades. This AP English Language and Composition Practice Exam is provided by the College Board for AP Exam preparation. Teachers are permitted to download the materials and make copies to use with their students in a classroom setting only. To maintain the security of this exam, teachers should collect all materials after their administration and keep them in a secure location. Teachers may not redistribute the files electronically for any reason. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, SAT, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. All other products and services may be trademarks of their respective owners. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. Contents Directions for Administration ........................................................................................... ii Section I: Multiple-Choice Questions ................................................................................ 1 Section II: Free-Response Questions .............................................................................. 15 Student Answer Sheet for Multiple-Choice Section ...................................................... 25 Multiple-Choice Answer Key........................................................................................... 26 Free-Response Scoring Guidelines.................................................................................. 27 The College Board: Connecting Students to College Success The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 5,000 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges through major programs and services in college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT®, and the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP Central is the official online home for the AP Program: apcentral.collegeboard.com. -i- AP® English Language and Composition Directions for Administration The AP English Language and Composition Exam is 3 hours and 15 minutes in length and consists of a multiplechoice section and a free-response section. • The 60-minute multiple-choice section (Section I) contains 54 questions and accounts for 45 percent of the final grade. • The 120-minute free-response section (Section II) contains 3 questions and accounts for 55 percent of the final grade. • A 15-minute reading period precedes the free-response section. During this time, students should read Question 1 (the synthesis question), analyze and evaluate the sources, and plan their answers to the question. They may also read the other two essay questions. However, they should NOT begin to write their answers during the reading period. Students should be given a 10-minute warning prior to the end of each section of the exam. A 10-minute break should be provided after Section I is completed. The actual AP Exam is administered in one session. Students will have the most realistic experience if a complete morning or afternoon is available to administer this practice exam. If a schedule does not permit one time period for the entire practice exam administration, it would be acceptable to administer Section I one day and Section II on a subsequent day. Many students wonder whether or not to guess the answers to the multiple-choice questions about which they are not certain. It is improbable that mere guessing will improve a score. However, if a student has some knowledge of the question and is able to eliminate one or more answer choices as wrong, it may be to the student’s advantage to answer such a question. • The use of calculators, or any other electronic devices, is not permitted during the exam. • It is suggested that the multiple-choice section of the practice exam be completed using a pencil and that essay responses be written in blue or black ink to simulate an actual administration. • In the multiple-choice exam booklet for the actual AP English Language and Composition exam, the passages and the questions asked about them are always printed on facing pages so that students do not have to turn back to reread a section of the passage or to locate a line reference. Teachers who want to simulate actual exam conditions as accurately as possible may want to keep this feature in mind as they consider how to present the multiple-choice section of the practice exam to their AP English Language and Composition classes. • Teachers will need to provide paper for the students to write their free-response answers. Teachers should provide directions to the students indicating how they wish the responses to be labeled so the teacher will be able to associate the student’s response with the question the student intended to answer. • Remember that students are not allowed to remove any materials, including scratch work, from the testing site. -ii- Section I Multiple-Choice Questions -1- The inclusion of source material in this exam is not intended as an endorsement by the College Board or ETS of the content, ideas, or values expressed in the material. The material printed here reflects various aspects of the course of study on which this exam is based and is therefore appropriate to use to measure the skills and knowledge of this course. -2- ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION SECTION I Time—1 hour Directions: This part consists of selections from prose works and questions on their content, form, and style. After reading each passage, choose the best answer to each question and then place the letter of your choice in the corresponding box on the student answer sheet. Note: Pay particular attention to the requirement of questions that contain the words NOT, LEAST, or EXCEPT. Questions 1-14. Read the following passage carefully before you choose your answers. (The following passage is from a contemporary British book about the English language.) Line 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Most people appear fascinated by word origins and the stories that lurk behind the structures in our language. Paradoxically, they may consider that change is fine as long as it’s part of history—anything occurring now is calamitous. We’ve always been this way. In 1653 John Wallis railed against the use of the word chicken as a singular noun. In 1755 Samuel Johnson wanted to rid the language of ‘licentious idioms’ and ‘colloquial barbarisms’. The sort of barbarisms he had in mind were words like novel, capture and nowadays. Others were fretting about shortened forms like pants for pantaloons and mob for mobile vulgus. More than five hundred years ago the printer Caxton also worried about the ‘dyuersite & chaunge of langage’. Even two thousand years ago Roman verbal hygienists were complaining about changes they saw happening in spoken Latin. Of course, this ‘bad’ Latin continued to deteriorate until it turned into French, Italian and Spanish. Take a straightforward example. English shows a handy flexibility in being able to convert words to other parts of speech without the addition of any sort of prefix or suffix. Such elasticity is an offshoot of the loss of inflection (endings added for grammatical purposes). Curiously, this is a feature of English that’s not appreciated by all, and many speakers are quick to condemn usages such as to impact (on) and a big ask. New conversions often provoke hostility in this way. In the 1600s to invoice (created from the noun) was a horrid colloquialism. With time, such newcomers may come to sound as everyday as any venerable oldie, and the next generation of English speakers will be puzzling over what possible objections there could have been to them. By then, there’ll be new weeds to eradicate. One such was reported to me by someone who overheard it in a Chinese restaurant. The waiter was praising a customer for having chopsticked so well. Will this verb catch on? Time will tell. So what’s really going on when people object to 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 words and word usage in this way? Essentially, it’s not a language matter we're dealing with here, but more a social issue. Words carry with them a lot of social baggage, and typically it’s that which people are reacting to. Many rules of language usage like ‘don’t use “impact” as a verb’ take their force from their cultural and social setting. People aren’t objecting to impact as a verb as such. It’s just that it sounds a bit like gobbledygook, either pretentious or uneducated, and maybe they don’t want to be identified with the kind of people who use it. In the same way, fifty years ago people complained that the verb to contact was inflated jargon and they hated it. Language often becomes the arena where social conflicts are played out. When Jonathan Swift complained about shortenings like pozz from positive, he blamed changes like these on the ‘loose morals’ of the day. But of course the social significance of many of these usages is lost to us today, and the objections to them now seem puzzling and trivial. American lexicographer Noah Webster wanted to rid his dictionary of English -our spellings like honour and also -re spellings like theatre. Why? Because they smacked of a smarmy deference to Britain. Compare the reactions of many Australians towards the current Americanis/zation of their ‘beloved Aussie lingo’. In truth, hostility towards ‘American’ -or spellings in place of English -our, or -ize in place of-ise, is not based on genuine linguistic concerns, but reflects deeper social judgements. It’s a linguistic insecurity born of the inescapable dominance of America as a cultural, political and economic superpower. These spellings are symbols of this American hegemony and become easy targets for anti-American sentiment. If Alfred the Great had had the chance to read the language of Chaucer, over five hundred years after Alfred’s own time, he would have been shocked at the changes to English—changes that we now see, another six hundred years on, as part of the richness and versatility of the language. The only languages that don’t change are ones that are well and truly dead. English, with 350 million first-language speakers and about the same number of secondlanguage speakers, is alive and well. The future for English has never looked so good. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -3- 1. In the passage as a whole, a major shift in the development of the argument occurs at which of the following points? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 6. Paragraph three (lines 40-53) implies that those who would strictly follow rules of the English language feel “More than five hundred years ago” (line 13) “Take a straightforward example” (line 20) “So what’s really going on” (line 40) “Language often becomes” (line 54) “Compare the reactions of many Australians” (lines 64-65) (A) timid whenever they must correct others’ linguistic errors (B) admiring of others’ linguistic creativity (C) free to break rules of social etiquette (D) satisfied that the flexibility of the English language is superior to that of all others (E) anxious about how their use of language affects others’ perceptions of them 2. The author presents John Wallis (line 6), Samuel Johnson (lines 7-8), and Jonathan Swift (line 55) as hostile to (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 7. In paragraphs three and four (lines 40-74), the author’s discussion of reaction to changes in language develops by faulty studies of word origins tedious debates about grammar local misunderstandings of historical events snobbish rejections of modern vocabulary unnecessary changes in word usage in their eras (A) accumulating evidence of changes in language that occur unintentionally and changes that are intended to manipulate situations (B) broadening from people’s immediate circle of contacts to their own larger society and then to an international perspective (C) intensifying as it moves from spelling variations that annoy to word choices that express bias to larger communications that antagonize (D) contrasting examples of changes that reflect social concord and examples of changes that reflect social discord (E) drawing a parallel between examples from the world of business and examples from the world of international relations 3. The chief effect of the word “hygienists” (line 16) is to (A) lend a tone of mocking humor to the discussion (B) expand the argument to a subject other than language (C) establish a deferential attitude about the subject (D) provide an objective approach to the argument (E) set up a contrast between Roman and modern English standards of usage 8. Examples in paragraph 4 (lines 54-74) provide evidence that 4. What the author refers to as “weeds” (line 34) are (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) usage changes obsolete terms diction errors clichés metaphors (A) language usage can survive political turmoil (B) nationalism influences reactions to linguistic changes (C) generalizations about language usage are usually inaccurate (D) linguistic changes occur more frequently now than in the past (E) dominant nations undergo more linguistic changes than less powerful nations 5. The word “chopsticked ” (line 38) is used as an example of (A) a new usage that is unlikely to persist (B) a verb form created from a noun (C) a verb in the past tense used as an adjective (D) fashionable slang used by international travelers (E) foreign-language words becoming part of English GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -4- 9. The example of Alfred the Great (lines 75-80) serves to 12. The tone in the passage is best described as (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (A) build on the point made in lines 1-5 (B) underscore the example of Australians’ reaction to American spelling (lines 64-72) (C) contrast views of past leaders with those of contemporary leaders (D) document the earliest changes to the English language (E) point out a parallel with the views of Noah Webster (lines 60-64) dramatic confidential impressionistic thoughtful yet playful moralistic and rigid 13. The author employs which of the following in developing the arguments in the passage? I. II. III. IV. 10. The author indicates that international reactions to Americanized spellings of words can reflect (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (A) (B) (C) (D) a desire to return to simpler times anxiety about pleasing American tourists contempt for inaccuracies in American usage resentment of America’s cultural and economic status (E) confidence that local usage will ultimately prevail Rhetorical questions References to grammatical terms Quotations from famous writers Examples from diverse eras III only I and II only II and IV only I, III, and IV only I, II, III, and IV 14. The author’s relation to the reader is best described as that of (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 11. The attitude of the author toward the English language is one of (A) high regard for the early scholars of English grammar (B) acceptance of changes in English despite a strong sense of loss (C) disdain for those condoning the linguistic flexibility of English (D) interest in the past of and optimism for the future of English (E) preoccupation with the accuracy of expression of English an informed commentator a sympathetic ally an angry critic an amused colleague an aloof judge GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -5- Questions 15-25. Read the following passage carefully before you choose your answers. (The following passage is excerpted from a book about education in the United States.) Line 5 10 15 20 25 Teachers’ salaries, expenditures per pupil, and other indicators of school quality (including the physical plant) significantly affect the employment prospects and wages of high school graduates. Yet unlike other nations, American schools are financed at the local rather than the federal level. If parents do not live in affluent communities . . . they have few ways of assuring a quality education . . . . And voters, many of them parents who believe they already “did their bit” by raising their own children, are becoming less and less willing to subsidize schools for “other” people’s kids. School bond failures are way up in comparison with earlier decades. At the same time, the property tax cuts of the 1970s and 1980s greatly decreased the resources available to schools. Child advocate and educational researcher Jonathan Kozol reports that New York City spends half as much per student as surrounding suburbs. In 1992, the country’s forty-seven largest urban school districts spent nearly $900 less on each student than did their suburban counterparts—even though the urban schools were far more likely to have students needing special services. There are also substantial variations within school districts. Poorer neighborhoods . . . receive much lower public subsidies than affluent ones.1 30 35 40 45 International comparisons reveal that education is simply not a national priority in the United States the way it is in many countries. We have a piecemeal, incoherent system that fails to train teachers thoroughly, keep track of student progress in a consistent way, or ensure equality of access. Things are no better in the work world. Only 1 percent of the funding employers devote to training goes towards raising basic skills, those most needed by young entry-level workers. Both publicly and privately funded education is heavily skewed against the apprenticeship programs and vocational training needed by youngsters whose parents cannot afford to send them to college. Government spending on employment and training programs, in inflationadjusted dollars, is today only one-third of what it was in 1980. At the same time, the cost of higher education has soared, while loans and scholarships have been cut back.2 1 Jonathan Kozol, Savage Inequalities: Children in America’s Schools (New York: Crown, 1991), p. 237; “Hard Data,” Washington Post Weekly Edition, September 28-October 4, 1992, p. 37. 2 David Whitman, “The Forgotten Half,” U.S. News & World Report, June 26, 1989; Randy Abelda, Nancy Folbre, and the Center for Popular Economies, The War Against the Poor: A Defense Manual (New York: The New Press, 1996), p. 68; Peter Applebome, “U.S. Gets ‘Average’ Grade in Math and Science Studies,” New York Times, November 21, 1996. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -6- 15. The primary purpose of the passage is to 19. The italics in the second paragraph (lines 16-26) serve all of the following purposes EXCEPT to (A) call attention to a serious problem (B) justify the continuation of current policies (C) examine the advantages and disadvantages of policy changes (D) refute the allegations of critics (E) establish the need for additional data and studies (A) emphasize the author’s frustration with the situation (B) underscore the author’s major points in the paragraph (C) call attention to the magnitude of the problem being discussed (D) exaggerate the author’s determination to bring about change (E) highlight details that support the author’s argument 16. Which of the following best describes the relationship between the first and second sentences of the passage? (A) The first sentence states a fact; the second states an opinion. (B) The first sentence presents an idea; the second reiterates the same idea. (C) The first sentence makes a statement; the second introduces a potential difficulty. (D) The first sentence lists goals; the second explains them. (E) The first sentence summarizes one point of view; the second summarizes an opposing position. 20. Which of the following best describes the function of the sentence “Things are no better in the work world” (lines 32-33) ? (A) It extends the author’s argument about education into another area. (B) It suggests that educators alone are not responsible for poor school quality. (C) It tries to establish new sources of funding for educational endeavors. (D) It introduces an argument for the need to make entry-level work more demanding. (E) It offers a specific example of unethical behavior. 17. Which of the following versions of the sentence in lines 4-6, reproduced below, is clearest? Yet unlike other nations, American schools are financed at the local rather than the federal level. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 21. The author offers specific data to support which of the following assertions? Change “Yet” to “Nevertheless” Add “schools in” after “unlike” Add “however” after “schools” Change “are financed” to “receive income” Add “from” after “than” (A) “Teachers’ salaries, expenditures per pupil, and other indicators of school quality (including the physical plant) significantly affect the employment prospects and wages of high school graduates.” (lines 1-4) (B) “School bond failures are way up in comparison with earlier decades.” (lines 1213) (C) “International comparisons reveal that education is simply not a national priority in the United States the way it is in many countries.” (lines 27-29) (D) “We have a piecemeal, incoherent system that fails to train teachers thoroughly, keep track of student progress in a consistent way, or ensure equality of access.” (lines 29-32) (E) “Things are no better in the work world.” (lines 32-33) 18. In context, the tone of lines 8-12 (“And voters . . . kids”) can best be described as (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) heedless scandalized critical surprised encouraging GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -7- 22. The information in the sentence below would fit most logically after the sentence that ends on which of the following lines? 24. The purpose of endnote 2 (line 45) is to (A) inform readers that the author is directly quoting the writers listed in the endnote (B) provide reference materials to support forthcoming data (C) document the sources of claims made about loans, scholarships, and educational funding (D) refute the notion that there is a link between the cost of higher education and the availability of loans (E) acknowledge that the experts listed might not agree with the claim made in the preceding sentence In Australia all school funding is centralized so that the government can ensure accountability and fair deployment of resources. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Line 8 Line 15 Line 23 Line 29 Line 33 23. Which of the following statements about the information in endnote 1 is correct? 25. Which of the following information does endnote 2 provide? (A) This endnote appears on page 237 of the book Savage Inequalities: Children in America’s Schools and on page 37 of the article “Hard Data.” (B) Jonathan Kozol edited a book that contains the article “Hard Data.” (C) The article “Hard Data” was first published in the book Savage Inequalities: Children in America’s Schools. (D) Savage Inequalities: Children in America’s Schools is an article printed both in a book edited by Jonathan Kozol and in Washington Post Weekly Edition. (E) In 1991 Crown published Savage Inequalities: Children in America’s Schools, written by Jonathan Kozol. (A) David Whitman edited a book that contains an article first published in U.S. News & World Report. (B) The War Against the Poor: A Defense Manual was edited by Peter Applebome. (C) The Center for Popular Economies reprinted a book, The War Against the Poor: A Defense Manual, that was published in 1996. (D) Randy Abelda and Nancy Folbre published a book in 1989. (E) The article “U.S. Gets ‘Average’ Grade in Math and Science Studies” was written by Peter Applebome and published in the New York Times. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -8- Questions 26-39. Read the following passage carefully before you choose your answers. 40 (The following passage is from a contemporary biography about a mathematician.) Line 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 For [Paul] Erdős, mathematics was a glorious combination of science and art. On the one hand, it was the science of certainty, because its conclusions were logically unassailable. Unlike biologists, chemists, or even physicists, Erdős, Graham, and their fellow mathematicians prove things. Their conclusions follow syllogistically from premises, in the same way that the conclusion “Bill Clinton is mortal” follows from the premises “All presidents are mortal” and “Bill Clinton is a president.” On the other hand, mathematics has an aesthetic side. A conjecture can be “obvious” or “unexpected.” A result can be “trivial” or “beautiful.” A proof can be “messy,” “surprising,” or, as Erdős would say, “straight from the Book.” In a good proof, wrote Hardy, “there is a very high degree of unexpectedness, combined with inevitability and economy. The argument takes so odd and surprising a form; the weapons used seem so childishly simple when compared with the far-reaching consequences; but there is no escape from the conclusions.” What is more, a proof should ideally provide insight into why a particular result is true. Consider one of the most famous results in modern mathematics, the Four Color Map Theorem, which states that no more than four colors are needed to paint any conceivable flat map of real or imaginary countries in such a way that no two bordering countries have the same color. From the middle of the nineteenth century, most mathematicians believed that this seductively simple theorem was true, but for 124 years a parade of distinguished mathematicians and dedicated amateurs searched in vain for a proof— and a few contrarians looked for a counterexample. “When I started at AT&T,” said Graham, “there was a mathematician there named E. F. Moore who was convinced that he could find a counterexample. Each day he would bring in a giant sheet of paper, and I 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 mean giant, two feet by three feet, on which he had drawn a map with a few thousand countries. ‘I know this one will require five colors,’ he’d confidently announce in the morning and volunteer to give me a dollar if it wasn’t the long-sought-after counterexample. Then he’d go off and spend hours coloring it. He’d come by at the end of the day, shake his head, and hand me a dollar. The next day he’d be back with another map and we’d go through the same thing again. It was the easiest way to make a buck!” By 1976 it was clear why Moore’s quest for a five-color map had come to nought. That was the year Kenneth Appel and Wolfgang Haken of the University of Illinois finally conquered this mathematical Mount Everest. When word of the proof of the Four Color Map Theorem reached college mathematics departments, instructors cut short their lectures and broke out champagne. Some days later they learned to their dismay that Appel and Haken’s proof had made unprecedented use of high-speed computers: more than 1,000 hours logged among three machines. What Appel and Haken had done was to demonstrate that all possible maps were variations of more than 1,500 fundamental cases, each of which the computers were then able to paint using at most four colors. The proof was simply too long to be checked by hand, and some mathematicians feared that the computer might have slipped up and made a subtle error. Today, more than two decades later, validity of the proof is generally acknowledged, but many still regard it as unsatisfactory. “I’m not an expert on the four-color problem,” Erdős said, “but I assume the proof is true. However, it’s not beautiful. I’d prefer to see a proof that gives insight into why four colors are sufficient.” Beauty and insight—these are words that Erdős and his colleagues use freely but have difficulty explaining. “It’s like asking why Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony is beautiful,” Erdős said. “If you don’t see why, someone can’t tell you. I know numbers are beautiful. If they aren’t beautiful, nothing is.” GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -9- 26. Which of the following best describes the passage as a whole? 30. Paragraph two presents which of the following? I. A demonstration of the inherent simplicity of a mathematical problem II. A discussion of the Four Color Map Theorem III. An example of the tenacity of mathematicians (A) An analysis of rival viewpoints among mathematicians (B) An exploration of the role of computers in solving mathematical theorems (C) A reflection on certain key features of mathematical proofs (D) An explanation of required steps for mathematical proofs (E) A treatise on the necessity of an aesthetic element in mathematics texts (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 27. The author includes a reference to Bill Clinton in lines 8-10 primarily to 31. In context, the word “contrarians” (line 34) means those who (A) provide an example of how a syllogism works (B) provide an example of a logical fallacy (C) provide a political illustration for a mathematic problem (D) engage in a sardonic digression (E) develop an analogy to illustrate the difference between politics and math (A) take an old-fashioned view (B) deny the complexity of the theory of the four color map (C) approach a topic from an unorthodox perspective (D) dislike most mathematical procedures (E) cooperate with other mathematicians 32. The phrase “mathematical Mount Everest” (line 53) refers to 28. For the mathematicians cited in lines 10-21, a proof would lack beauty if it were (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) II only I and II only I and III only II and III only I, II, and III (A) “long-sought-after counterexample” (lines 43-44) (B) “five-color map” (line 50) (C) “Four Color Map Theorem” (line 54) (D) “use of high-speed computers” (lines 58-59) (E) “1,500 fundamental cases” (line 62) useful in everyday life free of nonessential steps clearly comprehensible resistant to challenge completely predictable 29. In paragraph one, all of the following pairs illustrate contrasts EXCEPT 33. In context, the phrase “fundamental cases” (line 62) means (A) (B) (C) (D) “science” and “art” (line 2) “obvious” and “unexpected” (line 12) “trivial” and “beautiful” (line 13) “surprising” (line 14) and “straight from the Book” (line 15) (E) “odd” and “surprising” (line 18) (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) basic patterns primary numbers specific reasons historical illustrations unchanging proofs GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -10- 34. At the end of paragraph three, the author includes a quotation from Erdős (lines 69-73) primarily to show that Erdős (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 37. The sense of the last paragraph depends mainly on which of the following? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) admires those who developed the theorem knows little about the theorem reserves judgment on the proof dislikes some aspects of the proof begs to differ with the results of the proof 38. On the whole, the tone of the author is best described as 35. In context, paragraphs two and three (lines 22-73) primarily serve to (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (A) suggest that different mathematicians have different strengths (B) explain how both humans and computers rely on syllogisms (C) contrast mathematical proofs with scientific investigations (D) illustrate the shortcomings of a mathematical proof without beauty (E) underscore Erdős’ reputation as being at once humble and a perfectionist puzzled objective skeptical confrontational condescending 39. The author’s presentation makes use of all of the following EXCEPT (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 36. Paragraphs two and three are developed primarily by (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Analogy Humor Irony Paradox Personification direct quotation dictionary definition historical summary extended anecdote comparison with the arts definition argument persuasion comparison and contrast narration and analysis GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -11- Questions 40-54. Read the following passage carefully before you choose your answers. 30 (This passage is from a work written near the end of the eighteenth century; the author is a woman.) Line 5 10 15 20 25 To speak disrespectfully of love is, I know, high treason against sentiment and fine feelings; but I wish to speak the simple language of truth, and rather to address the head than the heart. To endeavour to reason love out of the world would be to out-Quixote Cervantes,1 and equally offend against common sense; but an endeavour to restrain this tumultuous passion, and to prove that it should not be allowed to dethrone superior powers, or to usurp the sceptre which the understanding should ever coolly wield, appears less wild. Youth is the season for love in both sexes; but in those days of thoughtless enjoyment provision should be made for the more important years of life, when reflection takes place of sensation. But Rousseau,2 and most of the male writers who have followed his steps, have warmly indicated that the whole tendency of female education ought to be directed to one point—to render them pleasing. Let me reason with the supporters of this opinion who have any knowledge of human nature. Do they imagine that marriage can eradicate the habitude of life? The woman who has only been taught to please will soon find that her charms are oblique sunbeams, and that they cannot have much effect on her husband’s heart when they are seen every day, when the summer is passed and gone. Will she then have 35 40 45 50 55 sufficient native energy to look into herself for comfort, and cultivate her dormant faculties? or is it not more rational to expect that she will try to please other men, and, in the emotions raised by the experience of new conquests, endeavour to forget the mortification her love or pride has received? When the husband ceases to be a lover, and the time will inevitably come, her desire of pleasing will then grow languid, or become a spring of bitterness; and love, perhaps, the most evanescent of all passions, gives place to jealousy or vanity. I now speak of women who are restrained by principle or prejudice. Such women, though they would shrink from an intrigue with real abhorrence, yet, nevertheless, wish to be convinced by the homage of gallantry that they are cruelly neglected by their husbands; or, days and weeks are spent in dreaming of the happiness enjoyed by congenial souls, till their health is undermined and their spirits broken by discontent. How then can the great art of pleasing be such a necessary study? it is only useful to a mistress. The chaste wife and serious mother should only consider her power to please as the polish of her virtues, and the affection of her husband as one of the comforts that render her task less difficult, and her life happier. But, whether she be loved or neglected, her first wish should be to make herself respectable, and not to rely for all her happiness on a being subject to like infirmities with herself. 1Reference to the novel Don Quixote by the Spanish writer Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616) 2Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), French writer and philosopher GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -12- 40. The passage as a whole is best described as a 46. In line 24, the “sunbeams” are “oblique” because they are (A) discussion of women’s unique qualities (B) criticism of the limited goals of women’s education (C) declaration of a woman’s right to choose a husband (D) plea for the eradication of an outdated female stereotype (E) cynical parody of the attitude of males (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 47. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word “prejudice” as it is used in line 40 ? 41. In line 9, “sceptre” is used as a (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) symbol of queenly grace metaphor for physical strength synonym for the word “sword” symbol of authority metaphor for love (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 42. The first paragraph (lines 1-11) functions as (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) a reasoned introduction to an argument initial evidence to support a thesis the opening scene of a narrative basic historical background material an analysis of the boundaries of a case (A) introduce a rationale for women to behave as men behave (B) illustrate the futility of looking “into herself for comfort” (lines 28-29) (C) explore the dilemma of how principle can coexist with prejudice (D) exemplify how efforts to please inevitably displease (E) develop the metaphor of the “spring of bitterness” (line 36) instruction is first given youthful pleasures are pursued one has children of one’s own maturity has been reached age forces reliance on other people 49. In context, the author’s regard for “the great art of pleasing” (line 47) is best described as 44. In lines 20-21, the author reveals her intention to (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (A) appeal to the intelligence of those who support Rousseau’s theories (B) argue with those who question Rousseau’s theories (C) acknowledge that young women may resist her ideas (D) assume that her audience has little knowledge of human nature (E) suggest that her audience has no personal experience of love minimal deepening enthusiastic excessive ambivalent 50. In line 55, “a being” is best taken to mean a woman’s (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 45. The author’s approach to reasoning with “the supporters of this opinion” (line 20) is to pose questions that she (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Unfounded dislike A loss of faith Innovative thinking Fixed convictions Affectionate approval 48. Lines 39-47 (“I now speak . . . discontent”) serve to 43. In line 14, the phrase “the more important years of life” is best taken to mean the years when (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) very beautiful and very fleeting overly familiar and growing weaker shyly revealing and subtly ingratiating meaningless to the person casting them distorted by the person at whom they are directed daughter friend father husband self knows the supporters have considered answers with emotion rather than reason fears can never be answered by anyone intentionally answers with illogical responses answers from her own point of view GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -13- 51. The passage can best be classified as which of the following? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 53. The author’s reflections on married love are best described as A fictional narrative A reasoned appeal A dispassionate analysis A formal petition A dramatic accusation (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 52. The author appears to believe most firmly that illogical and contradictory romantic and optimistic serious and cautionary glamorous and inflated speculative and shallow 54. Throughout the passage, the author’s argument is meant chiefly to (A) passion and reason should be exercised equally (B) love is the highest level of fulfillment (C) all passions, but especially love, must be subject to reason (D) young women should delay marriage until their passions have cooled (E) young men should seek wives who have been educated by women (A) inspire young men and women to be faithful to each other (B) question the sincerity of expressions of love (C) change perceptions of how women should relate to men (D) bring to light the hardships of married women (E) describe the ideal education for women END OF SECTION I IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, YOU MAY CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION. DO NOT GO ON TO SECTION II UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO. -14- Section II Free-Response Questions -15- ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION SECTION II Reading period—15 minutes Total writing time—2 hours Question 1 (Suggested time—40 minutes. This question counts for one-third of the total essay section score.) Directions: The following prompt is based on the accompanying six sources. This question requires you to synthesize a variety of sources into a coherent, well-written essay. When you synthesize sources you refer to them to develop your position and cite them accurately. Your argument should be central; the sources should support this argument. Avoid merely summarizing sources. Remember to attribute both direct and indirect citations. Introduction Global warming (an increase in Earth’s external temperatures) has been blamed for a host of recent worldwide issues, including an increase in the number and severity of hurricanes, higher temperatures and droughts, and various other environmental changes. Some strategies that are used to curtail global warming may affect global politics and economics. Assignment Read the following sources (including the introductory information) carefully. Then, in an essay that synthesizes at least three of the sources for support, take a position on the key issues that leaders (in science, politics, business, etc.) should consider when making policies that may affect global warming. You may refer to the sources by their titles (Source A, Source B, etc.) or by the descriptions in parentheses. Source A Source B Source C Source D Source E Source F (Kyoto Protocol) (Graph) (Fonda) (Lomborg) (Maslin) (Borenstein) GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -16- Source A “Kyoto Protocol Takes Effect.” The Nature Conservancy. Summer 2005: 13. The following passage is excerpted from an article in a quarterly magazine focused on environmental awareness. In February the Kyoto Protocol to reduce global warming took effect, requiring participating countries to reduce their greenhouse-gas emissions to below 1990 levels over a five-year period beginning in 2008. One hundred fortyone countries ratified the treaty. The United States and Australia, which together account for one-quarter of the world’s greenhouse-gas emissions, did not. The Nature Conservancy regards the Kyoto Protocol as a key first step to help slow the onslaught of global warming and benefit conservation efforts. GLOBAL WARMING AT A GLANCE • • • • In the 20th century, the world’s average surface temperature rose by approximately 1 degree Fahrenheit, the fastest rate in any period over the last 1,000 years. The combustion of fossil fuels—coal, natural gas and petroleum—accounts for nearly three-quarters of carbon dioxide emissions, the primary global-warming gas. Approximately one-quarter of carbon dioxide is caused by deforestation. Protection and restoration of forests may be able to offset up to 20 percent of carbon dioxide emissions over the next 50 years. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -17- Source B Graph The graph below is compiled from a variety of government data available on measured ocean temperatures over approximately 150 years. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -18- Source C Fonda, Daren. “G.E.’s Green Awakening.” Inside Business. Spec. issue of Time Aug. 2005: A10-16. The following passage is excerpted from an article in the special business section of a weekly news magazine. The potential for fuel-saving technologies and renewable energy is also getting more compelling as oil and gas prices reach record levels. Eighteen states, including power hogs California and Texas, have set requirements or goals for renewable energy. New York, for one, aims to generate 25% of the state’s energy from renewables by 2013, up from 19% today. More than 160 mayors have pledged to curb greenhouse gases in their cities according to the guidelines of the Kyoto Protocol. Indeed, now that Kyoto has kicked in—with 34 industrialized nations legally bound to cut emissions, excluding the U.S., China and Australia—multinational companies will have to cut CO2 emissions or pay to pollute at the old rate, bolstering the market for pollution-control gear. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -19- Source D Lomborg, Bjørn. The Skeptical Environmentalist: Measuring the Real State of the World. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2001. The following passage is excerpted from a book that argues that too much attention is being paid to the negative impact of global warming. In general we need to confront our myth of the economy undercutting the environment. We have grown to believe that we are faced with an inescapable choice between higher economic welfare and a greener environment. But surprisingly and as will be documented throughout this book, environmental development often stems from economic development—only when we get sufficiently rich can we afford the relative luxury of caring about the environment. . . . This also has implications for our discussions on prioritization. Many people love to say that we should have a pollution-free environment. Of course this is a delightful thought. It would likewise be nice to have a country with no disease . . . . The reason why this does not happen in real life is that the cost of getting rid of the final disease . . . will always be ridiculously high. We invariably choose to prioritize in using our limited resources. One American economist pointed out that when we do the dishes we are aiming not to get them clean but to dilute the dirt to an acceptable degree. If we put a washed plate under an electron microscope we are bound to see lots of particles and greasy remnants. But we have better things to do than spend the whole day making sure that our plates are a little cleaner (and besides, we will never get them completely clean). We prioritize and choose to live with some specks of grease. Just how many specks we will accept depends on an individual evaluation of the advantages of using more time doing dishes versus having more leisure time. But the point is that we—in the real world—never ask for 100 percent. Similarly, we have to find a level at which there is sufficiently little pollution, such that our money, effort and time is better spent solving other problems. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -20- Source E Maslin, Mark. Global Warming: A Very Short Introduction. NY: Oxford UP, 2004. The following passage is excerpted from a book that analyzes global warming. The first major flaw in the Kyoto Protocol, according to many, is that it does not go far enough. The Kyoto Protocol currently negotiated has cuts of emissions relative to 1990 levels of between 3 and 8% for just over half of the developed world with no restrictions for the less-developed world, while scientists have suggested up to a 60% global cut is required to prevent major climatic change. Hence it is suggested that the Kyoto Protocol will do nothing to prevent global warming and is not significantly different from a business-as-usual situation; which is of course what many developed countries want in order to maintain their economy. . . . It is, however, unsurprising that the USA withdrew from these climate change negotiations: US carbon dioxide emissions have already risen by 12% compared with 1990 levels and are predicted to rise by more than 30% by 2012 compared to 1990 levels. So if they had agreed to ratify the Kyoto Protocol, they would have had to cut their emissions by over a third, which successive Presidents have seen as a direct threat to the US economy and their chances of re-election. . . . There is very little doubt that global warming will change our climate in the next century; our best estimates suggest an average temperature increase of 1.4–5.8°C, a sea-level rise in the order of a metre, significant changes in weather patterns, and more extreme climate events. This . . . does produce some major challenges for our global society, the most important of which are the moral dilemmas that global warming has precipitated. First, how do we ensure that the Third World develops as rapidly as possible, while preventing a massive explosion in production of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases? Second, is the question of whether the money we plan to spend on stabilizing global warming, $8 trillion or 2% of the World’s GDP, to protect future generations is better spent on alleviating current global human suffering? Ultimately, 2% of the World’s GDP is a very small cost if we can ensure that the world economy continues to grow by 2-3% per year over the next century as predicted. So ultimately global warming is an issue of morals and global economics. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -21- Source F Borenstein, Seth. “Study Blames Global Warming for Early Springs.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch 17 May 2005: A3. The following passage is excerpted from an article appearing in a daily newspaper. Each spring, the robins are arriving in Wisconsin several days earlier than they did a decade ago. Endangered woodpeckers in North Carolina are laying their eggs about a week earlier than they did 20 years ago. And some of Washington’s signature cherry trees bloom about a month earlier than they did a half-century ago. The first signs of spring are appearing earlier in the year, and a new study from Stanford University released Monday says man-made global warming is clearly to blame. Mother Nature has rushed spring forward by nearly 10 days worldwide, on average, in just 30 years, the study shows. What this means, biologists say, is that the global environment is changing so fast that the slow evolutionary process of species adaptation can’t keep up. Early-arriving birds could crowd out birds that migrate only in longer daylight, leaving them insufficient food. Early blossoming flowers—such as the columbine—could be wiped out by spring snowstorms. “What we’re really concerned about is this tearing apart of communities; some species are going to be changing, and some are not,” said study co-author Terry Root, an ecologist at Stanford’s Center for Environmental Science and Policy. The peer-reviewed study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, statistically links global warming from the burning of fossil fuels to signs of early spring at detailed local levels for the first time. © McClatchy-Tribune Information Services. All Rights Reserved. Reprinted with permission. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -22- Question 2 (Suggested time—40 minutes. This question counts for one-third of the total essay section score.) Mary Ann Shadd Cary (1823-1893) was an African American writer, newspaper publisher, educator, lawyer, and abolitionist. In 1851 she went from the United States to Canada to work with the fugitive community (the escaped slaves and the freed slaves who crossed the border into Canada after the United States Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act). She soon began publishing the newspaper Provincial Freeman to link the fugitives and to promote the antislavery cause. The passage below is from an editorial (“Why Establish This Paper?”) that appeared in the second issue of the Provincial Freeman (March 25, 1854). Read the passage carefully, considering the circumstances in which it was written. Then, in a carefully written essay, analyze the techniques Mary Ann Shadd Cary uses to establish the necessity of her newspaper. Line 5 10 15 20 25 We need an organ, too, for making our voice heard at home. Some of our wants, grievances and demands are peculiar to ourselves. It is so with other classes. We form a considerable element in the political constitution of our country, one way and another. As the great country grows, we grow with it; as it improves and progresses, we are carried forward on the bosom of its onward tide. Questions will arise affecting us as a class, which we must know how skillfully and efficiently to meet. To be always at the mercy of the demagogue of the hour is neither safe, dutiful, nor in any sense becoming. We must allow our fellow subjects to know who we are and what we want, through our own authorized mouth-piece. Hence we must have a mouth-piece. Is not that plain? Besides, it is due to our Constitution and Government, that we should train ourselves so as to fit us for the discharge of the duties of freemen, in full. Such freemen we never were before; and hence the need of our being fitted as well to look after our rights and interests as to discharge our duties. —We beg to ask especial attention to those two points. They are, to our own mind, matters of importance. Indeed, upon our first arrival in Canada they struck us forcibly; and every day, their importance to us has increased. We say it in no ill spirit, but whatever blame may be cast upon us for saying it, it is neither to be denied nor concealed that there is not and never was a 30 35 40 45 50 55 newspaper in Canada which represented the intelligence of colored Canadians; never one, whose respectability made it such a paper, as in a free country we need not be ashamed of. We do not ask the friends of the Paper, nor the Publishing Committee, nor the Stockholders, to be responsible for this remark. We say it on our own responsibility, and if anybody chooses to find fault with it, let him write to us, and he shall have his say in our columns. But we venture to say that our statement is simply true. We beg to add, that none of the papers published by our people, in the States, answer our purpose. They either pass us by, in cold contempt, ignore us altogether, keep themselves or their readers, or both, ignorant of what Canada is, or in some other way, by opposition or neglect disparaging us, as much as convenient. They will do us but very little good. We recollect a paper, of small size, published and edited by a Mr. What do you call him? called the Impartial Citizen, wherein there never was one column of information concerning Canada. And one of the reasons was the Editor knew next to nothing about Canada. We fear that other Editors in the States will be of as little service to us as that gentleman then was. Good friends, we have a paper because we think we need one, and we have told you some reasons why. Do you agree with us? GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -23- Question 3 (Suggested time—40 minutes. This question counts for one-third of the total essay section score.) In 2001 The American Scholar published an excerpt from a talk given by English author Margaret Drabble. In her talk, Drabble claimed that “Our desire to conform is greater than our respect for objective facts.” Using appropriate evidence from your reading, observation, and/or experience, write a carefully reasoned essay defending, challenging, or qualifying Drabble’s assertion about conformity. STOP END OF EXAM -24- Name: _______________________________________ AP® English Language and Composition Student Answer Sheet for Multiple-Choice Section No. 1 Answer No. 31 2 32 3 33 4 34 5 35 6 36 7 37 8 38 9 39 10 40 11 41 12 42 13 43 14 44 15 45 16 46 17 47 18 48 19 49 20 50 21 51 22 52 23 53 24 54 25 26 27 28 29 30 -25- Answer AP® English Language and Composition Multiple-Choice Answer Key No. 1 Correct Answer C No. 31 Correct Answer C 2 E 32 C 3 A 33 A 4 A 34 D 5 B 35 D 6 E 36 E 7 B 37 A 8 B 38 B 9 A 39 B 10 D 40 B 11 D 41 D 12 D 42 A 13 E 43 D 14 A 44 A 15 A 45 E 16 C 46 B 17 B 47 D 18 C 48 E 19 D 49 A 20 A 50 D 21 E 51 B 22 D 52 C 23 E 53 C 24 C 54 C 25 E 26 C 27 A 28 E 29 E 30 D -26- AP® English Language and Composition Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 1 The score should reflect a judgment of the essay’s quality as a whole. Remember that students had only 15 minutes to read and 40 minutes to write; therefore, the essay is not a finished product and should not be judged by standards that are appropriate for an out-of-class assignment. Evaluate the essay as a draft, making certain to reward students for what they do well. All essays, even those scored 8 or 9, may contain occasional flaws in analysis, prose style, or mechanics. Such features should enter into the holistic evaluation of an essay’s overall quality. In no case may an essay with many distracting errors in grammar and mechanics be scored higher than a 2. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 9 Essays earning a score of 9 meet the criteria for 8 essays and, in addition, are especially sophisticated in their argument, skillful in their synthesis of sources, or impressive in their control of language. 8 Effective Essays earning a score of 8 effectively develop a position on the key issues that leaders should consider when making policies that may affect global warming. They support their position by successfully synthesizing* at least three of the sources. The argument is convincing, and the sources effectively support the student’s position. The prose demonstrates an ability to control a wide range of the elements of effective writing but is not necessarily flawless. 7 Essays earning a score of 7 fit the description of 6 essays but are distinguished by more complete or more purposeful argumentation and synthesis of sources, or a more mature prose style. 6 Adequate Essays earning a score of 6 adequately develop a position on the key issues that leaders should consider when making policies that may affect global warming. They synthesize at least three of the sources. The argument is generally convincing and the sources generally support the student’s position, but the argument is less developed or less cogent than the arguments of essays earning higher scores. The language may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but generally the prose is clear. 5 Essays earning a score of 5 develop a position on the key issues that leaders should consider when making policies that may affect global warming. They support their position by synthesizing at least three sources, but their arguments and their use of sources are somewhat limited, inconsistent, or uneven. The argument is generally clear, and the sources generally support the student’s position, but the links between the sources and the argument may be strained. The writing may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but it usually conveys the student’s ideas adequately. 4 Inadequate Essays earning a score of 4 inadequately develop a position on the key issues that leaders should consider when making policies that may affect global warming. They attempt to present an argument and support their position by synthesizing at least two sources but may misunderstand, misrepresent, or oversimplify either their own argument or the sources they include. The link between the argument and the sources is weak. The prose of 4 essays may suggest immature control of writing. ∗ For the purposes of scoring, synthesis refers to combining the sources and the student’s position to form a cohesive, supported argument, and accurately citing sources. -27- AP® English Language and Composition Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 1 (continued) 3 Essays earning a score of 3 meet the criteria for the score of 4 but demonstrate less understanding of the sources, less success in developing their own position, or less control of writing. 2 Little Success Essays earning a score of 2 demonstrate little success in developing a position on the key issues that leaders should consider when making policies that may affect global warming. They may merely allude to knowledge gained from reading the sources rather than citing the sources themselves. The students may misread the sources, fail to present an argument, or substitute a simpler task by merely responding to the question tangentially or by merely summarizing the sources. The prose of 2 essays often demonstrates consistent weaknesses in writing, such as a lack of development or organization, grammatical problems, or a lack of control. 1 Essays earning a score of 1 meet the criteria for a score of 2 but are especially simplistic, are weak in their control of writing, or do not cite even one source. 0 Indicates an on-topic response that receives no credit, such as one that merely repeats the prompt. — Indicates a blank response or one that is completely off topic. -28- AP® English Language and Composition Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 2 The score should reflect a judgment of the essay’s quality as a whole. Remember that students had only 40 minutes to read and write; therefore, the essay is not a finished product and should not be judged by standards that are appropriate for an out-of-class assignment. Evaluate the essay as a draft, making certain to reward students for what they do well. All essays, even those scored 8 or 9, may contain occasional flaws in analysis, prose style, or mechanics. Such features should enter into the holistic evaluation of an essay’s overall quality. In no case may an essay with many distracting errors in grammar and mechanics be scored higher than a 2. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 9 Essays earning a score of 9 meet the criteria for 8 essays and, in addition, are especially sophisticated in their analysis or demonstrate particularly impressive control of language. 8 Effective Essays earning a score of 8 effectively analyze the techniques Shadd Cary uses to establish the necessity of her newspaper. The prose demonstrates an ability to control a wide range of the elements of effective writing but is not necessarily flawless. 7 Essays earning a score of 7 fit the description of 6 essays but provide a more complete analysis or demonstrate a more mature prose style. 6 Adequate Essays earning a score of 6 adequately analyze the techniques Shadd Cary uses to establish the necessity of her newspaper. The writing may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but generally the prose is clear. 5 Essays earning a score of 5 analyze the techniques Shadd Cary uses to establish the necessity of her newspaper. These essays may, however, provide uneven, inconsistent, or limited analysis. The writing may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but it usually conveys the student’s ideas. 4 Inadequate Essays earning a score of 4 inadequately analyze the techniques Shadd Cary uses to establish the necessity of her newspaper. The prose generally conveys the student’s ideas but may suggest immature control of writing. 3 Essays earning a score of 3 meet the criteria for a score of 4 but demonstrate less success in analyzing the techniques Shadd Cary uses to establish the necessity of her newspaper. The essays may show less control of writing. 2 Little Success Essays earning a score of 2 demonstrate little success in analyzing the techniques Shadd Cary uses to establish the necessity of her newspaper. These essays may misunderstand the prompt; fail to analyze the techniques Shadd Cary uses; or substitute a simpler task by responding to the prompt tangentially with unrelated, inaccurate, or inappropriate analysis. The prose often demonstrates consistent weaknesses in writing. -29- AP® English Language and Composition Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 2 (continued) 1 Essays earning a score of 1 meet the criteria for a score of 2 but are undeveloped, especially simplistic in their analysis, and/or weak in their control of language. 0 Indicates an on-topic response that receives no credit, such as one that merely repeats the prompt. — Indicates a blank response or one that is completely off topic. -30- AP® English Language and Composition Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 3 The score should reflect a judgment of the essay’s quality as a whole. Remember that students had only 40 minutes to read and write; therefore, the essay is not a finished product and should not be judged by standards that are appropriate for an out-of-class assignment. Evaluate the essay as a draft, making certain to reward students for what they do well. All essays, even those scored 8 or 9, may contain occasional flaws in analysis, prose style, or mechanics. Such features should enter into the holistic evaluation of an essay’s overall quality. In no case may an essay with many distracting errors in grammar and mechanics be scored higher than a 2. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 9 Essays earning a score of 9 meet the criteria for 8 essays and, in addition, are especially sophisticated in their explanation and argument or demonstrate particularly impressive control of language. 8 Effective Essays earning a score of 8 effectively develop a position on Drabble’s assertion about conformity. The evidence used is appropriate and convincing. The prose demonstrates an ability to control a wide range of the elements of effective writing but is not necessarily flawless. 7 Essays earning a score of 7 fit the description of 6 essays but provide a more complete argument or demonstrate a more mature prose style. 6 Adequate Essays earning a score of 6 adequately develop a position on Drabble’s assertion about conformity. The evidence used is appropriate. The writing may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but generally the prose is clear. 5 Essays earning a score of 5 develop a position on Drabble’s assertion about conformity. These essays may, however, provide uneven, inconsistent, or limited explanations or evidence. The writing may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but it usually conveys the student’s ideas. 4 Inadequate Essays earning a score of 4 inadequately develop a position on Drabble’s assertion about conformity. The evidence used may be insufficient. The prose generally conveys the student’s ideas but may suggest immature control of writing. 3 Essays earning a score of 3 meet the criteria for a score of 4 but demonstrate less success in developing a position on Drabble’s assertion about conformity or in providing evidence to support that position. The essays may show less control of writing. 2 Little Success Essays earning a score of 2 demonstrate little success in developing a position on Drabble’s assertion about conformity. The students may misunderstand the prompt or substitute a simpler task by responding to the prompt tangentially with unrelated, inaccurate, or inappropriate evidence. The prose often demonstrates consistent weaknesses in writing. -31- AP® English Language and Composition Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 3 (continued) 1 Essays earning a score of 1 meet the criteria for a score of 2 but are undeveloped, especially simplistic in their explanation and argument, or weak in their control of language. 0 Indicates an on-topic response that receives no credit, such as one that merely repeats the prompt. — Indicates a blank response or one that is completely off topic. -32- ...
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