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Unformatted text preview: 10.1177/0022427804266544 ARTICLE JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN CRIME AND DELINQUENCY Xu et al. / COMMUNITY POLICING DISCOVERING THE IMPACT OF COMMUNITY POLICING: THE BROKEN WINDOWS THESIS, COLLECTIVE EFFICACY, AND CITIZENS JUDGMENT YILI XU MORA L. FIEDLER KARL H. FLAMING The main purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the structure, mechanisms, and efficacy of community policing and its impact on perceived disorder, crime, qual- ity of life in the community, citizensfear, and satisfaction with the police. It compares traditional and community policing paradigms on three dimensions: goal, measure- ment of outcome, and approach to crime. It concludes that community policing has a comprehensive, community-oriented goal, targets both disorder and crime, and emphasizes both organizational and community measures in police evaluation. It also addresses the criticisms of community policing and tests the heatedly debated rela- tionships concerning community policing, disorder, crime, citizens fear, and collec- tive efficacy. The major findings of the study include (1) Harcourts falsification of Skogans findings is invalid because of the methodological flaws, and therefore does not negate the disorder-crime nexus; (2) Sampson and Raudenbush unintentionally demonstrate, through their reciprocal feedback models, that crime and disorder are indirectly related; (3) disorder has strong direct, indirect, and total effects on crime even with collective efficacy being controlled for; (4) contrary to intuition, disorder elicits more fear than crime; (5) community policing reduces crime indirectly; (6) col- lective efficacy plays a far less significant role in controlling disorder, crime, and fear than community policing; and (7) citizens fear and perceived life quality are significant predictors of citizen satisfaction with the police. Keywords: community policing; broken windows thesis; and collective efficacy We wouldlike to thankall anonymousreviewers fortheir very helpfulcommentsandsugges- tions, without which this article would not be in the current shape. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Yili Xu, Department of Sociology, Campus Box 105, P.O. Box 173364, Denver, CO 80217-3364. JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN CRIME AND DELINQUENCY, Vol. 42 No. 2, May 2005 147-186 DOI: 10.1177/0022427804266544 2005 Sage Publications 147 THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK In both the literature of community policing and the field of law enforce- ment, there have been heated debates over the philosophy, mechanisms, and efficacy of community policing. Although many believe that community policing has advanced beyond the defining stage, its ability to meet its goals remains largely untested (Sadd and Grinc 1996), and substantial disagree- ment exists among criminologists, legal scholars, policy makers, and crimi- nal justice practitioners....
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This note was uploaded on 10/11/2009 for the course CRJ 345 taught by Professor Brown during the Spring '09 term at University of Illinois at Springfield.
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