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Notes Ch. 1-4 - Chapter 1 Central Dogma of biology DNA...

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Chapter 1 Central Dogma of biology: DNA transcription/translation There are hundreds of types of RNA, not just tRNA, mRNA, rRNA Some RNA can function as enzymes There are 20 naturally occurring amino acids, hundreds more can be synthesized Cells make up tissues Bacteria have cell walls made from peptidoglycan Most antibiotics are bacteriostatic, meaning they slow bacterial growth but do not actually kill bacteria Cell size Organelles, molecules, atoms Largest cell is volonia ventricola: size of golf ball Key Q: what are concentrations/conformations of molecules? This determines whether or not reactions will occur. Bacteria Can be spherical (streptococcus), rod shaped (e. coli), or spiral (MRSA) Bacteria are partly responsible for helping make vitamins Can synthesize all amino acids, humans can’t Photosynthetic bacteria: nitrogen fixation, CO2 fixation, spore formation Photosynthetic bacteria: endosymbiotic theory: cell engulfed bacteria that could do cell respiration, became mitochodria. This is why mitochondria have double membrane Yeast Single celled, large nucleus Are eukaryotic and easy to culture, leading them to be a good subject to study larger eukaryotes including humans Mitochondrion Folded internal membranes increase surface area for cellular respiration Evidence that supports endosymbiotic theory: mitochondria have their own circular DNA similar to that of bacteria, they can reproduce on their own, and have a ribosome structure different from that of eukaryotes but normal for prokaryotes Plant cells: Have chloroplasts and mitochondria Eukaryotic cell with mitochondria likely engulfed photosynthetic bacteria Golgi apparatus:
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Made from many folded membranes Responsible for vesicular trafficking: creating membrane enclosed vesicles then transporting Endocytosis/Exocytosis ie hormone production, transported via golgi into ER, packaged in vesicles cells use receptors to determine what to take in Cytoskeleton actin filaments, microtubules, intermediate filaments microtubules are important to mytosis: they are what pull apart daughter cells Temperature-sensitive mutation mutagenizing an organism= forcing a mutation on it can mutagenize bacterial cells to only grow at certain temperatures Genes responsible for replication were ID’d solely using temperature sensitive mutation Occurs because protein (enzyme/substrate) can only function at certain temperatures Rescue Introducing foreign DNA to restore a certain function
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