Unit 4 - the atom part 1

Unit 4 - the atom part 1 - The Atom Chemistry 102 Fall 2009...

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The Atom Chemistry 102 – Fall 2009
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In the text… 2 t Chapter 2 t sections 1-3, 5 t Chapter 3 t Sections 1-3, 5
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Practice Problems 3 t Chapter 2 : t 8-16, 51,-53, 56 t Chapter 3 : t 1-10, 12-30 evens, 37, 38-42 evens, 48-54 evens,
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4 Activity –The Nuclear Atom
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UnitOutline 5 t Structure of the atom t Ions t Isotopes t Atomic Mass t The MOLE! t Percent Composition
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The Three Broad Classes: Main, Transition, Rare Earth 6 t Main (Representative), Transition metals, lanthanides and actinides (rare earth)
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Structure of the Atom In the text: 2.1 – 2.3
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Dalton’s Atomic Theory 8 1. Elements are composed of extremely small particles called atoms. 2. Atoms of the same element are identical* in mass, size and chemical properties. The atoms of one element are different than atoms of other elements. 3. Chemical compounds are formed by the union of two or more atoms of different elements; Atoms combine to form compounds in simple numerical ratios, such as one to one , two to two, two to three, and so on. 4. Atoms of two elements may combine in different ratios to form more than one compound. 5. A chemical reaction does not result in the creation or destruction of atoms, only their separation, combination, or rearrangement.
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9 t Dalton’s Theory gives us 3 laws: t The Law of Definite Composition t The Law of Multiple Proportions t Law of conservation of Mass 2.1
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The Law of Definite Composition/Proportions Different samples of the same compound always contain its constituent elements in the same proportion by mass
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Definite Composition Example 11 t Water is H 2 O t The % by mass of H is 11.2%. t The % by mass of O 88.8%. t Water always has these percentages. If the percentages were different, the compound would not be water. t Hydrogen Peroxide is H 2 O 2 t The % by mass of H is 5.9%. t The # by mass of O is 94.1%. t Hydrogen peroxide always has these percentages. If the percentages were different, the compound would not be hydrogen peroxide.
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The Law of Multiple Proportions Atoms of two or more elements may combine in different ratios to produce more than one compound. .
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The law of multiple proportions 13 2
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14 Taken from: Foundations of College Chemistry, Alt 12 th ed by Hein & Arena
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Law of conservation of mass Matter can be rearranged, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
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Law of conservation of mass 16 8 X 2 Y 16 X 8 Y +
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The parts of an atom Electrons, Protons, Neutrons
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Electrons t Negatively charged t Smallest of 3 major subatomic particles t Outside of Nucleus t Involved in chemical 18 discovermagazine.com/2009/jan/070/electron_1.jpg Image of single electron in motion
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t Positively charged t Found in the nucleus t Basis for atomic identity b Atomic “Fingerprint” t Weighs ~ 1840x more than electron! 19
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Unit 4 - the atom part 1 - The Atom Chemistry 102 Fall 2009...

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