Chapter 10 - CHAPTER 10 CHEMICAL BONDING II: MOLECULAR...

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CHAPTER 10 CHEMICAL BONDING II: MOLECULAR GEOMETRY AND HYBRIDIZATION OF ATOMIC ORBITALS 10.7 (a) The Lewis structure of PCl 3 is shown below. Since in the VSEPR method the number of bonding pairs and lone pairs of electrons around the central atom (phosphorus, in this case) is important in determining the structure, the lone pairs of electrons around the chlorine atoms have been omitted for simplicity. There are three bonds and one lone electron pair around the central atom, phosphorus, which makes this an AB 3 E case. The information in Table 10.2 shows that the structure is a trigonal pyramid like ammonia. P Cl What would be the structure of the molecule if there were no lone pairs and only three bonds? (b) The Lewis structure of CHCl 3 is shown below. There are four bonds and no lone pairs around carbon which makes this an AB 4 case. The molecule should be tetrahedral like methane (Table 10.1). C H (c) The Lewis structure of SiH 4 is shown below. Like part (b), it is a tetrahedral AB 4 molecule. Si H H H H (d) The Lewis structure of TeCl 4 is shown below. There are four bonds and one lone pair which make this an AB 4 E case. Consulting Table 10.2 shows that the structure should be that of a distorted tetrahedron like SF 4 . Te Are TeCl 4 and SF 4 isoelectronic? Should isoelectronic molecules have similar VSEPR structures? 10.8 Strategy: The sequence of steps in determining molecular geometry is as follows: draw Lewis ⎯⎯→ find arrangement of find arrangement determine geometry structure electrons pairs of bonding pairs based on bonding pairs
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CHAPTER 10: CHEMICAL BONDING II 202 Solution: Lewis structure Electron pairs Electron Lone pairs Geometry on central atom arrangement (a) Al Cl 3 trigonal planar 0 trigonal planar, AB 3 (b) Zn 2 linear 0 linear, AB 2 (c) Zn 2 4 tetrahedral 0 tetrahedral, AB 4 10.9 The lone pairs of electrons on the bromine atoms have been omitted for simplicity. linear C Hg Br linear NN linear O S N + 10.10 (a) AB 4 tetrahedral (f) AB 4 tetrahedral (b) AB 2 E 2 bent (g) AB 5 trigonal bipyramidal (c) AB 3 trigonal planar (h) AB 3 E trigonal pyramidal (d) AB 2 E 3 linear (i) AB 4 tetrahedral (e) AB 4 E 2 square planar 10.11 The Lewis structure is: C H H H C OH O AB 3 trigonal planar O H AB 2 E 2 bent C H H H AB 4 tetrahedral C O
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CHAPTER 10: CHEMICAL BONDING II 203 10.12 Only molecules with four bonds to the central atom and no lone pairs are tetrahedral (AB 4 ). Si Cl Cl Cl Cl CI I I I Cd Cl Cl Cl Cl 2 What are the Lewis structures and shapes for XeF 4 and SeF 4 ? 10.17 All four molecules have two bonds and two lone pairs (AB 2 E 2 ) and therefore the bond angles are not linear. Since electronegativity decreases going down a column (group) in the periodic table, the electronegativity differences between hydrogen and the other Group 6 element will increase in the order Te < Se < S < O. The dipole moments will increase in the same order. Would this conclusion be as easy if the elements were in different groups?
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Chapter 10 - CHAPTER 10 CHEMICAL BONDING II: MOLECULAR...

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