AIDS Midterm review

AIDS Midterm review - BICD 136 Midterm Review Introduction...

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BICD 136 Midterm Review Introduction to HIV/AIDS and the global crisis Define: AIDS, HIV, vertical transmission AIDS : Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Vertical Transmission: mother-to-child transmission. This is mostly seen in Africa because women do not have ample medication to remove the risks of transmission to a child. Explain why the disease is called “AIDS.” The disease is called Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome because unlike other immune suppression diseases, AIDS is contagious and can be acquired. Why might someone be immune suppressed apart from HIV? Cancer: chemotherapy and radiation therapy kills a lot of cells Organ transplants Various genetic disorders can cause immune suppression What is the relationship between HIV and AIDS? AIDS is caused by HIV, but AIDS is not the same are being HIV positive. HIV attacks T- cells, so the immune system eventually becomes disabled so a person becomes susceptible to infection. How is HIV spread? Sex : In the US, primarily homosexual behavior. Globally mostly spread through heterosexual behavior. IV drug users sharing needles. Vertical Transmission How does it cause illness? HIV attacks the T-cells in the immune system, so the body becomes susceptible to infection. What biological factors make it particularly challenging to deal with compared to other epidemics? HIV mutates very rapidly: Retrovirus. Every virus is different from the parent, which makes the virus very difficult to treat because it adapts very quickly. There is a long asymptomatic period: people can spread the disease not even knowing it. HIV positive people are ALWAYS infectious. HIV is fatal AIDS is driving the resurgence of other diseases that medicine was starting to get a handle on: Tuberculosis and malaria are easily acquired when infected with AIDS. Therapies that help slow the effects of HIV are not always helpful - Sometimes the therapies are toxic and the side effects are worse than the actual disease. - Therapy will only work for a limited period of time before the virus mutates again and begins to adapt. - Plus therapy is very expensive and not everyone can afford it.
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What other factors make HIV/AIDS particularly hard to deal with? In developing countries most people who are affected do not even know (~80%) because they are not being tested. There is a large social stigma associated with AIDS. - This can be life threatening because people can refuse treatment to avoid public knowledge of their disease and thus escape social criticism. Preventative measures are not in place where they are most needed. For example, about 25% of people in India don’t even know what AIDS is. It is difficult to stop the sexual and addictive behaviors that are most closely associated
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AIDS Midterm review - BICD 136 Midterm Review Introduction...

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