BIBC 120 Final Review

BIBC 120 Final Review - BIBC 120 Final Review Lipids...

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Unformatted text preview: BIBC 120 Final Review Lipids Essential Fatty Acid : fatty acids that must be supplied by the diet to maintain health. Currently only linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid are classified as essential. o Omega 3 unsaturated fatty acid with the first double bond on the third carbon from the methyl end Fatty fish, canola oil, soybean oil, walnuts, flax seeds/oil, avocado Omega-3 and Omega-6 are starting essential fatty acids that are necessary for the formation of eicosanoids; however they are unevenly distributed in foods o There is a 10:1 ratio to how much omega-6 needs to be consumed as compared to omega-3 Eicosanoids : hormone like compounds synthesized from polyunsaturated fatty acids. Within this class of compounds are prostacyclins, prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes. a) Immediate acting b) Produced in small amounts c) Dont participate, but trigger reactions occurring in the cell Group 2 Group 3 Strong blood clotting effect Overconsu mption of omega- 6 will lead to a stronger tendency Overconsu mption of Omega-3 will promote less clotting Increased risk of to clot Higher risk for heart attack hemorrhagic stroke No Eicosanoids Group 3 Group 1 Group 2 Hormone like whereas a hormone is produced in one tissue and then circulates in small amounts to target area eicosanoids are produced on site 3 Precursor molecules o Eicosapentaenoic acid, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid o Each one of these precursor molecules is capable of developing their own set of prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes o All the eicosanoids have certain similarity in function, which is why they are grouped together, but the target tissue and level of functionality is different Group 2 produces very strong eicosanoids so the effectiveness is very high Group 3 not as strong. Can be considered almost anti-inflammatory. Cyclic Eicosanoids COX Pathway requires the use of cyclooxygenase and peroxidase o both of these enzymes take a precursor molecule and make it into a cyclic compound o first, prostaglandins are produces and some of the prostaglandins will go on to do their own function, while others are further converted into prostacyclins and thromboxanes Cyclooxygenase 1 goes through COX 1 pathway, which produced prostaglandins of a certain type o Maintenance and protection of GI tract (plus prostacyclins and thromboxanes) o Prostaglandins produced in this pathway are responsible for mucus production o Inhibitors of this pathway reduce the risk for ulcerations Cyclooxygenase 2 pathway produces a different set of prostaglandins which produces different prostacyclins and thromboxanes o Prostaglandins for inflammation and pain o COX 2 inhibitors increase the risk for heart attack, through an unknown mechanism Aspirin (COX 1/2) ibuprofen (COX 1) and Viox (COX 2) inhibitors o Inhibitors do not completely stop all production but production is effected...
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BIBC 120 Final Review - BIBC 120 Final Review Lipids...

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