BIBC 120 Midterm Review II

BIBC 120 Midterm Review II - Things That Are Not Digested I...

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Things That Are Not Digested I. Oligosaccharides II. Amylose and Amylopectin (although amylose is even less) Soluble fibers go through fermentation to produce acid and gas. o Soluble fiber has many benefits, including moderating blood glucose levels and lowering cholesterol o Bacteria in the large intestine can ferment soluble fibers into products such as short chain fatty acids and gases (hydrogen and methane) which can provide fuel for the cells in the large intestine. These products can also be absorbed into the large intestine. Insoluble fibers are the only ones that cannot be broken down in the large intestine, therefore are not worked on by bacteria in the large intestine. o It passes through our digestive system in close to its original form *Conceptual* -- If you soak beans in water, there are less oligosaccharides and therefore less effected during digestion o If they are not soaked in water then there are more oligosaccharides and potential to get indigestion, flatulence and pain Lactose Maldigestion – lactose not being properly digested Dependant on the production of lactase Symptoms can include gas, abdominal bloating, cramps and diarrhea o The bloating and gas are caused by bacterial fermentation of lacrosse in the large intestine o Diarrhea is caused by undigested lactose in the large intestine as it draws water from the circulatory system into the large intestine Primary Lactose Maldigestion: production of lactase decreases o 75% of the population, although not everybody experiences symptoms Secondary Lactose Maldigestion: temporary condition in which lactase production is decreased in response to an underlying disease, such as intestinal diarrhea o Confined to the period of the illness and period of recovery (which is variable) Strategies to avoid Lactose Maldigestion I. Avoid it completely Can get nutrients from other sources, such as soy milk II. Consume reduced amounts of lactose III. Increase tolerance First need to establish a base line (tolerance at which you can consume lactose without any symptom) and drink at the baseline for a few days/weeks Afterwards, slowly increase the amount of being consumed by a little bit This still puts certain limits on the amount of dairy that can be consumed IV. Reduce the amount of lactose that reaches large intestine
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Yogurt, cheese, buttermilk, etc – the percentage of lactose in lower because the lactose is already partially digested If dairy products are mixed with fiber (which slows down the rate at which the pyloric sphincter opens), then the rate of digestion is slower Fat and protein also slow does the rate at which lactose will enter the small intestine Milk allergies and lactose maldigestion are different concepts. Milk contains lipoproteins, which people can be highly allergic to as well. Whole milk is better for people suffering from lactose maldigestion due to the presence of
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BIBC 120 Midterm Review II - Things That Are Not Digested I...

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