gdm - Optimizing Group Utility in the Collaborative...

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Optimizing Group Utility in the Collaborative Decision Making Process SYST 698 – Dr. Schum Andrew J. Ryan
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RYAN 2 Introduction. ....................................................................................................................... 3 Background. ....................................................................................................................... 3 The Collaborative Decision Making Initiative . .......................................................... 4 Group Decision Making Explored . ................................................................................... 6 Adding Intelligence to CDM. ............................................................................................. 8 Rationality. ................................................................................................................... 11 Heuristics and Satisficing . .......................................................................................... 11 Bayes and Decision Making . ...................................................................................... 12 Why a Group Decision Support System?. ....................................................................... 14 The Technology Aspect. ................................................................................................... 15 Learning . ...................................................................................................................... 17 About the Problem . .......................................................................................................... 18 The Coordination Process. ......................................................................................... 22 Why not Intelligence Sooner?. ........................................................................................ 23 Frames. ......................................................................................................................... 23 The Decision Maker as Amalgamator. ............................................................................ 25 Identifying a Social Welfare Function. ........................................................................... 26 Defining the Social Welfare Function . ...................................................................... 26 An Example from the Real World. .................................................................................. 27 Putting the Method to Work . ........................................................................................... 29 Comparing Trade-offs . ............................................................................................... 32 Summary. .......................................................................................................................... 36 Future Study . ............................................................................................................... 39 Works Cited. ..................................................................................................................... 40 Bibliography. .................................................................................................................... 44
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RYAN 3 Introduction Since 1960, air passenger traffic has increased at an average yearly rate of 9% [Donohue]. Because of this steady increase in demand, the airways have become increasingly more congested. While congestion in the airways is easy to deduce form this scenario. Another entity, the airport, is also affected. In its purest form, it is easiest to envision a flight in three stages: take-off, en-route, and landing. The airport dominates two of these three components and for that reason plays a large role in how traffic flows across the National Airspace System (NAS). Accordingly, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has two separate organizations to monitor these functions. Air traffic control, which ensures safe separation between aircraft, and traffic-flow management (TFM), which balances demand and capacity to maintain safe and efficient traffic flow [Chang et al.]. TFM is tasked with the responsibility of minimizing the interruptions to the NAS, so that the available capacity is utilized by existing demand. When demand exceeds capacity, they must make decisions and take actions to create an optimal situation for NAS users. This paper describes this process and makes suggestions on how decision-making can be improved to provide better results. Background Unlike EuroControl (the FAA’s European counterpart), flight scheduling in the United States operates under a sunny-day paradigm. Meaning, they assume there will be no environmental changes to the system to disrupt service. Meaning all aspects of the system from weather, to facilities, to human resources (i.e. controllers), will function as advertised and allow the total system capacity to be utilized. This utopian outlook works on most days, however when one or more of these resources is not at peak performance, the schedule is disrupted causing utilitarian decisions to be made across they system in deciding how to best cope with the situation.
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RYAN 4 To better deal with such conditions, in the early 1980s, the FAA began issuing Ground Delay Programs (GDP). The main purpose of a GDP is to allow planes to take their delay on the ground as opposed to in the air. By doing so, airlines would be able to save fuel (otherwise used doing airborne holding) and also increase safety (too many planes near the terminal area at an airport).
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This note was uploaded on 10/12/2009 for the course BUS Business A taught by Professor David during the Spring '09 term at Santa Monica.

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gdm - Optimizing Group Utility in the Collaborative...

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