Lecture 13_PS 121

Lecture 13_PS 121 - o Self fulfilling prophecies o...

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PS 121 Lecture 5/20/09 Biology and Human Nature: First image theory—what accounts for human behavior? Metal wiring, environment etc…) Idealist or materialist History of this “school” o Used to be grounded in religion or spirituality o Later arguments based on psychology o Most recent ones fuse biology, psychology and physiology (evolution is the driver—why has evolution put human beings in the position they are in?) Rome McDermott, Albert Hibbing, etc. Michael Crichton’s warning about this research Psychology and perceptions: What kinds of distortions or defects are built into human minds ROBERT JERVIS: 1 st image—materialist Perceptions matter Our minds distort things—psychology matters Examples of cognitive distortions o Miscommunication o Deterrence v Spiral Model—assigned in chapter 3 o Positive illusions o Cognitive dissonance—discussion (next slide)
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o Tunnel Vision
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Unformatted text preview: o Self fulfilling prophecies o Trash-can theory of learning • The Deterrence Model—if you see someone behaving badly you need to issue a sharp bold threat that keeps that status quo in place • Spiral Model—if someone is behaving badly and u issue a really strong threat they will one-up you and then you have to one-up them and that will eventually lead to war • Cognitive Dissonance: o Cognitive dissonance is a state of imbalance between cognitions (i.e. attitudes, emotions, beliefs or values) o The existence of dissonance being psychologically uncomfortable will motivate the person to try to reduce dissonance and achieve consonance. o When dissonance is present, in addition to trying to reduce it, the person will actively avoid situations and information which would likely increase dissonance. • PETA Example Bureaucratic Politics:...
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Lecture 13_PS 121 - o Self fulfilling prophecies o...

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