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PoliSci121 Midterm - What is theory-Theory is the analysis...

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What is theory? - Theory is the analysis of facts in their relation to one another OR a principle(s) offered to explain cause and effect. Waltz believes there are four functions to theory: description, explanation (a causes b under following circumstances), prediction (future forecasting- if a happens b will happen) and prescription. -Theory is significant because of the effort to make political science a hard science through theories and laws. -Political science is no really a theory, but has an analytical framework. How does one evaluate or “test” theory ? -According to Waltz, theories are tested through external (theories should be falsifiable through experiment or empirical observation) and internal validation (theories should be internally consistent and logical). (the scientific method?) -Political Scientists are making the effort to turn the field into a hard science by trying to test and prove IR theories. -Political science has so far proved to not be a theory, but an analytical framework. Levels-of-Analysis -A theory created by Waltz that states that IR can be divided into three levels, the first (individual) level, the second (state) level and the third (international) level. -One of the first successful IR theories -Not really a theory, but a typology to classify theories. Also, sometimes using just one level isn’t sufficient, the event you are trying to discuss doesn’t fit into any of the levels, so you have to use all three. The Fungibility of Force -(Robert J. Art) Fungibility of Force describes how force can be used for multiple purposes including military and nonmilitary purposes. o - Fungibility defined: Something that is exchangeable or substitutable o Fungibility of force: Can military power be used to secure outcomes in  other domains? o Is military force becoming less fungible over time?—Military force in a  conventional manner is not becoming less important in a realist world— but it is in an idealist (mostly because war is viewed as an event that is  barbaric and inhumane—some believe that because of the development of  nuclear weapons that the fungibility of force for military purposes is  decreasing Does military power translated to power in other domains?-is it becoming less effective over time? —Military power is commonly known as “Hard Power” and has in some ways  transferred into the domains of Economic control and power with sanctions etc…  Nye presents an argument against Waltz and military power—argument that non state actors can sometimes trump military o
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- Hard Power -Hard power is a term describing power obtained from the utilization of military and/or economic coercion to influence the behavior or interests of other political bodies. the term arose when Joseph Nye coined 'soft power' as a new, and different form of power. Hard power is
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