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UA_Outline - Urinalysis Study Outline(Physical Chemical 1...

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Urinalysis Study Outline (Physical & Chemical) 1. Clinical significance - detect structural and functional renal disorders. Functions of the kidney: Maintains water balance Maintains acid-base balance Maintains electrolyte balance Removes nitrogenous waste - creatinine, uric acid, urea Nephron is the functional unit: Filtration Reabsorption Secretion Concentration 2. Routine UA 2.1 physical tests 2.2 chemical tests 2.3 microscopic exam 3. Specimen Collection and Preservation 3.1 first morning 3.2 random 3.3 fasting 3.4 2-Hr postprandial 3.5 GTT 3.6 24-Hours timed 3.7 catheterization 3.8 midstream 3.9 suprapubic aspiration 3.10 3-tube/glass split (prostate infection) 3.11 exam time limits - bacteria, tonicity, refrigeration vs. rm temp 3.12 chemical fixatives 3.13 changes in unpreserved urine Decrease: glucose, ketones, bilirubin, urobilinogen, cells and casts Increase: pH, nitrite, bacteria, turbidity, color darkened 4. Physical examination 4.1 volume normal - range 600 - 2000; average output 1200 - 1500 ml/24 hrs volume increase - polyuria; nocturia volume decrease - oliguria (200-600); anuria < 200 4.2 Odor 1
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normal - faint aromatic ammonia - old or bacteria fruity - diabetic ketones maple syrup - maple syrup disease (branched chain amino acids) 4.3 Color normal colorless brownish yellow, green, amber red, clear smokey red, cloudy black orange blue-green 4.4 Appearance and clarity - app. 60 gm excreted/24 hrs. 35 gm organic (urea) and 25
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