UA_Macro_Physical

UA_Macro_Physical - URINALYSISWITHANEYETOWARD...

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URINALYSIS WITH AN EYE TOWARD  COMPETENCY ASSESSMENT Macroscopic  and Physical BY CHERYL JACKSON-HARRIS, MS MT(ASCP)SH Professor Professor Department of Clinical Sciences Department of Clinical Sciences California State University, Dominguez Hills California State University, Dominguez Hills Carson, California 90747 Carson, California 90747
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PREANALYTICAL CONSIDERATIONS COLLECTION HANDLING PRESERVATION
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CHARACTERISTICS ROUTINE UA Sample First morning, well-mixed Sufficient volume -12ml minimum , 50 ml recommended Test within 30 mins - 2hrs after voiding Test at room temperature Positive sample ID Collect in clean, dry, disposable container with leak proof lid.
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MAJOR GUIDELINES COLLECTION AND HANDLING Collection container Routine: clean, dry, disposable, leak-proof lids, 50 ml capacity Disposable pediatric bags Timed: large wide-mouth , 3 liter capacity Microbiology: sterile with lids Provide oral and written instructions Identify and label specimen, request and report Patient’s name, age, DOB, sex, location, ID number Requesting physician, diagnosis, applicable medications Initials of person handling the collection Date and time of collection and receipt in laboratory Affix label to container, not lid
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MAJOR GUIDELINES COLLECTION AND HANDLING (continued) Deliver specimen to lab 30 mins to 2 hrs after collection. If delayed, Refrigerate Select appropriate preservative. Apply and practice Universal Precautions
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Urine Composition (dissolved in water) Urea- metabolic waste product produced in the liver accounts for >50% of solutes* Creatinine* Uric acid Other organic substances • Inorganic ions (Cl, NA, K, SO 4 , PO 4 , NH 4 , Mg, Ca * Used to determine whether a fluid is urine
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URINE PRESERVATION Ideal characteristics prevent growth of bacteria inhibit urease preserve sediment does not interfere with chemical testing Examples Refrigeration: best overall Boric acid: interferes with pH Formalin: excellent for sediment Saccomanno’s: used for cytology Sodium fluoride: inhibits glycolysis; do not use with glucose oxidase reagent strip method Dilute acid: not suitable for microscopic
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CHANGES IN UNPRESERVED URINE Color Breakdown of chromogen Odor Bacterial growth and decomposition Increased turbidity Bacteria, crystal, amorphous High pH Breakdown urea to ammonia Decrease glucose Glycolysis, bacterial utilization
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UA_Macro_Physical - URINALYSISWITHANEYETOWARD...

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