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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 10 Group dynamics- the social psychological study of groups and group processes Group-two or more people who are interacting with one another and/ or influencing one another- Researchers are interested in such topics as group productivity and group decision making having focused on small groups- between 3-7, but up to 20- Researchers are interested in such topics as inter gorup conflict and international relations have focused on large groups (more than 20) Social facilitation- the effects of the presence of other people on individual performance, which will usually be improved performance on simple tasks and impaired performance on complex tasks (Zajonc) Dominant response- the action that is most likely to occur in a situation or on a task when the individual is alone- When a task is simple or something that people have done may times the dominant response will be correct ones, or well- practiced ones. When a task is complex the dominant response is more likely to be incorrect ones. These tendencies will be heightened by an audience- Performance in front of an audience on a well-known task improves, performance on a complex task worsens in front of an audience- Zajonc proposed that the presence of other people is physiologically arousing- When a task is simple it narrows focus of attention improving performance cause it blocks out distractions, when its complex its hard to focus on all the cues- 2 digit numbers on the computer screen, and had to push one of two response keys, one when the number was smaller than 68 and one when it was larger they were not told about this. Did it alone or with other people. Allowed to practice 25 times. Preformed better in front of audience then alone. When they did it with no practice (hard) they did worse in front of an audience then alone- Social loafing- the reduction of effort that people often exhibit when working in a group where individual contributions are unidentifiable Contrast with social facilitation which is to involve arousal, it involve relaxation motivation- Latane did an experiment and told students they were either cheering alone or with other people. They always cheered louder when it was by themselves, 82% as intensely when with one other, 74% when with five others- If people think that their own performance within a group with be identifiable, social loafing will disappear- Men are more likely to social loaf then women. Women are more group- orientated and concerned about their orientation De individuation- psychological state in which people lose their sense of personal identity and feel immersed in a group- E.g. same uniform can heighten deinficduation Different psychological processes through which deindividuation affects behavior 1. De individuation weakens peoples inhibition against performing harmful or socially disapproved actions- Selfish, greedy. From this perspective, deindivuation release people from their normal ethical constraints 2. De individuation heightens peoples responsiveness to eternal cues, which may be...
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This note was uploaded on 10/12/2009 for the course MIT 2000 taught by Professor Da during the Spring '09 term at Acadia.
- Spring '09