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Chapter 11 - Chapter 11 Definition and varieties of...

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Chapter 11: Definition and varieties of aggression: Aggression : any form of behavior that is intended to injure someone physically of psychologically Violence : when aggression is meant to cause extreme injury – such as death Hostile aggression : aggression that results from negative emotional states such as anger, frustration, or hatred – it is often impulsive Instrumental aggression : aggression motivated by other goals than harming a target – it is often pre-determined Relational aggression : aggression meant to damage another persons peer relationships – more common with girls – ex. Rumors Girls more than boys rely on social forms of aggression Theories of aggression: General aggression model (GAM) developed by Craig Anderson o Behavior is the result of a chain of psychological processes Biological influences on aggression: Hormonal activity and aggression o Male sex hormone in men, testosterone, contributes to aggression o STUDY: prisoners convicted of violent crimes had higher testosterone Evolutionary processes: o Some theorists proposed that human aggression is innate and has evolved for survival – fight or flight Frustration and Aggression:
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Heart of theory – “aggression is always a consequence of frustration” o Frustration occurs whenever a persons efforts to obtain a desired goal are interfered with or blocked Frustration-aggression hypothesis : has 2 components o Frustration always leads to some form of aggression o Frustration is the only cause of aggression Displaced aggression
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