Chapter10 - Psychology Study Notes Chapter 10 Motivation...

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Psychology Study Notes Chapter 10 Motivation and emotion Perspectives on motivation Instinct theory and modern Evolutionary psychology - Darwin’s theory of evolution inspired a psychological view that instincts motivate much of our behavior - Instinct - also called a fixed action pattern, is inherited characteristic, common to all member of a species that automatically produces a particular response when the organism is exposed to a particular stimulus - Human instinct theories faded out because they rely on circular reasoning - Today, hereditary contributions to human motivation is studied - Modern evolutionary psychologists thing that many psychological motives have evolutionary underpinnings expressed thought the actions of genes o Adaptive significance of behavior is a key to understanding motivation Homeostasis and drive theory - Bodies biological systems are delicately balanced to ensure survival - Walter cannon proposed the concept of homeostasis - a state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to maintain o Homeostasis models are applied to hunger, thirst, and body temperature… - Sensory mechanism- detects changes in the internal environment - Response system- restores equilibrium - Control center- receives information from the sensors and activates the response system - According to Clark hull s drive theory - physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives, states of internal tension that motivate an organism to behave in ways that reduce this tension - Hull thought that reducing drives is the ultimate goal of motivated behavior Incentive and expectancy theories - Drives push someone into action - Incentives - represent environmental stimuli that pull an organism toward a goal - Are applied to the study of drug abuse - Expectancy x value theory - proposes that goal- directed behavior is jointly determined by two factors: the strength of the persons expectation that particular behaviors will lead to a goal, and the value the individual places on that goal— often called inceptive value - Theses two factors are multiplied: motivation= expectancy X incentive value - Extrinsic motivation - performing a activity to obtain an external reward or to avoid punishment - Intrinsic motivation- performing an activity for its own sake- because you find it enjoyable or stimulating - The over justification hypothesis- giving people extrinsic rewards to perform activities that they intrinsically enjoy may over justify that behavior and reduce intrinsic motivation 1
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- Overall—extrinsic rewards reduce intrinsic motivation when they are tangible (money) Psychodynamic and humanistic theories - Abraham Mallow believed that psychologies other perspectives ironed a key motive: personal growth - Distinguished between deficiency needs (physical and social survival) and growth needs - Need hierarchy - progression of needs containing deficiency needs at the bottom and growth needs at the top - Self- actualization - represents the need to fulfill our potential and it is the
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This note was uploaded on 10/12/2009 for the course MIT 2000 taught by Professor Da during the Spring '09 term at Acadia.

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Chapter10 - Psychology Study Notes Chapter 10 Motivation...

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