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Chapter Sevennotes

Chapter Sevennotes - Chapter Seven Learning and Adaptation...

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Chapter Seven Learning and Adaptation: The Role of Experience Learning: a process by which experience produces a relatively enduring change in an organism’s behavior or capabilities - in science you must measure learning by actual changes in performance Adapting to the enviroment - we can view learning as a process of personal adaptation to the ever- changing circumstances of our lives how do we learn? The search for mechanisms - for a long time learning was separates into two; behaviorism and ethnology o behaviorism- how organisms learn how experiences change behavior o blank tablet Why do we learn? The search for function - ethology focused on animal behavior within the natural environment - Species come biologically prepared - focused on the functions of behavior and its adaptive significance- how does behavior influence an organisms chances for survival and reproduction in its natural environment? - Fixed action pattern: unlearned response automatically triggered by a particular stimulus o can be modified by experience o “instinctive” behavior involved learning Crossroads of learning: Biology, cognition, and culture - environment shapes our personalities in two fundamental ways: o personal adaptation- the laws of learning that the behaviorists examined and its results from our interaction with immediate and past environments o species adaptation - through evolution, environmental conditions faced by each species help shape its biology Habituation - a decrease in the strength of response stimulus o may be the simplest form of learning o humans to dragonflies and sea snails o sensory adaptation- decreased sensory response to a continuously present Classical conditioning: Associating one stimulus with another - classical conditioning- an organism learns to associate two stimuli (song and event) Pavlov’s Pioneering Research - Made accidental discovery when doing an experiment- dogs started to drool b4 actual food was presented - This was called classical or pavolvian conditioning - Classical conditioning alerts organisms to stimuli that signal the impending arrival of an important event 1
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Basic Principles Acquisition - refers to the period during which a response is being learned - When you give a dog food it does not require learning to drool; in this case the unconditioned stimulus (UCS)- is the food and the unconditioned response (UCR) is the salvation - The tone and food together is called the learning trial - After several learning trials the dog will drool to a tone with no food presented; through association the tone has become the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the salvation has become the conditioned response (CR) - CS must be paired with a UCS to establish CR - Learning develops most quickly using forward short-delay paring - CS (tone) appears first and is still there when UCS(food) is presented - Forward trace pairing CS(tone) would come on and off and then food presented - Presenting both at the same time (simultaneous pairing) produces less rapid
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