chapter15 - Chapter 15 Stress, coping, and health Stress-...

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Chapter 15 Stress, coping, and health Stress - eliciting stimuli or events that place strong demands on us - These situations are called stressors - Stress can be viewed as a: o Stimulus (I have 3 exams this week) o A response (having cognitive and physiological and behavioral components) e.g. im feeling all stressed out; presence of negative emotion o Combination of stimulus and response. Stress is viewed as a person- situation interaction or a transaction between the organism and the environment. Stress- is a pattern of cognitive appraisal, physiological responses, and behavior tendencies that occurs in response to a perceived imbalance between the situational demands and the resources needed to cope with them Different levels of stress: - Micro stressors- daily hassle - Catastrophic events- unexpected and involve large amounts of people (natural disasters - Major negative events- death, illness, requires major adoption The life event scale - quantify the amount of life stress that a person has experienced over a given period of time The starting point is the appraisal of the situation; there are four aspects: 1. Demands of the situation (primary appraisal) Primary appraisal- the initial appraisal of a situation as benign, irrelevant, or threatening; as a perception of the severity of the demand 2. Resources available to cope with it (secondary) Secondary appraisal- appraising your perceived ability to cope with the situation and the resources available to help you deal with it - Coping resources include: knowledge, ability, verbal skills, social resources 3. Potential consequences 4. Personal meaning Chronic Stress and GAS General adoption syndrome (GAS)- physiological response pattern to strong and prolonged sensors - Consists of three phases: - Alarm reaction - occurs because of sudden activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the release of stress hormones by the endocrine system - Resistance- the adrenal glands release epinephrine, nonepinephrine, and cortisol to maintain increased arousal - Exhaustion- The adrenal glands lose their ability to function normally, bodies
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resources are dangerously depleted, vulnerable to disease Rape trauma syndrome- for months to years after rape, victims may feel nervous and may fear another attack by the rapist; decreases enjoyment of sex Neuroticism- personality trait that involves the tendency to experience high levels of negative affect and to behave in self- defeating ways Vulnerability factors-
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chapter15 - Chapter 15 Stress, coping, and health Stress-...

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