CHPTR 11

CHPTR 11 - Psychology Exam Notes Chapter 11 Developmental...

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Psychology Exam Notes Chapter 11 - Developmental psychology examines changes in our biological, physical, psychological, and behavioural processes as we age. - Four broad issues guide much development research: 1 . Nature versus nurture 2. Critical and sensitive changes : experiences especially important to a particular age - A CRITICAL PERIOD is an age range which certain experiences must occur for development to proceed normally or along a certain path. A SENSITIVE PERIOD is an optimal age range for certain experiences, but if those experiences occur at another time, normal developments= will still be possible. 3. Continuity vs. Discontinuity 4. Stability vs. Change: Do our characteristics remain consistent as we age? Five development functions: A) No Change- an ability present at or before birth that remains relatively constant across lifespan. B) Continuous change- ability not present, or very immature, at birth that develops gradually over months or years and then remains constant over age. C) Stages- an ability that progresses in stages, with relatively rapid shifts from a lower level of performance to a higher level. D) Inverted U-shaped function- an ability that emerges some time after birth, peaks, and disappears with age. E) U-shaped function- an ability that is present in early life, disappears temporarily, and re-emerges later. CROSS-SECTION DESIGN: A research design that simultaneously compares people of different ages at a particular point in time. LONGITUDAL DESIGN: research that repeatedly tests the same cohort, as it grows older. -Prenatal development consists of three stages of physical growth. The germinal stage constitutes approximately the first two weeks of development, beginning with one sperm that fertilizes the egg. ZYGOTE: A fertilized egg. Through repeated cell division the zygote becomes a mass of cells that attaches to the mothers uterus about 10-14 days after conception 1
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-The embryonic stage extends from the end of the second week through the eighth week after conception. EMBRYO: The new mass of cells in the embryonic stage FETUS: After the ninth week of conception the embryo. During this fetal stage, which lasts until birth, muscles grow and other bodily systems continue to grow. TERATOGINS: are environmental agents that cause abnormal pre-natal development. FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME (FAS): Is a severe group of abnormalities that results from pre-natal exposure to alcohol. FETAL ALCOHOL EFFECTS: Children that only show mild forms of the effects of FAS. MATURATION: is the genetically programmed biological process that governs our growth. CEPHALOCAUDAL PRINCIPLE: reflects the tendency for development to proceed in a head- to-foot direction. PROXIMODISTAL PRINCIPLE:
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CHPTR 11 - Psychology Exam Notes Chapter 11 Developmental...

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