keyterms - Political institution rules procedures that...

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Political institution organization that manages potential conflicts b/w political rivals, helps them find mutually acceptable solutions, & makes & enforces society’s collective agreements (e.g. Congress, presidency, Supreme Court) important because: checks and balances—no on branch gets too much power Strategic politicians goal oriented actors-getting elected (reelection necessary for success) need to bargain, compromise w/other strategic politicians Ex.: House Stimulus Bill-may oppose b/c benefits may not kick in until after election & voters won’t see it Mayhew reading Prisoner’s dilemma when each individual finds it in his or her interest to defect from an agreement even though cooperation would have left individuals better off Ex.: primary attacks b/w Clinton & Obama free rider problem (sending armies) collective action problem Collective good individual reaps benefits of collective action regardless of whether he/she pays any of costs (non- excludability) public parks free riding Free rider problem not paying for a public good—worse in a large group b/c ones contribution is less likely to make a perceptible difference advantages for small, concentrated interests; organized interests have advantage solve by: appeals to civic duty, moral commitments, offer selective incentives, monetary & coercion Selective incentive private goods or benefits that induce rational actors to participate in a collective effort to provide a public good to stop free riding Ex.: life insurance to trade members to get money say must join union in order to keep job (i.e. teacher’s union) attorney’s can’t practice unless under bar (must pay) Politicized bureaucracy a bureaucracy is a diverse collection of departments, agencies, bureaus, commissions, and other units of the executive branch that carry out government policies. a creation of Congress president has own political agenda and can control bureaucracy career experts are political appointees & add another layer of political appointees (asst. secretaries) Unitary executive branch theory when a president claims prerogative to attach signing statements to bills & asserts his/her right to modify implementation or ignore altogether provisions of a new law that encroaches on his/her constitutional prerogatives as the chief executive or as commander in chief
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Constitution vests ALL executive power in President Signing statements part of unitary executive branch theory a statement issued by the president that is intended to modify implementation or ignore altogether provisions of a new law “shall construe Act in a manner consistent with the constitutional authority of the President to supervise the unitary executive branch” Bradley effect
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keyterms - Political institution rules procedures that...

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