Wildlife is as diverse as the vegetative cover. In the alpine tundra, the snowpack does not melt until well into summer and plantlife is sparse. Several species have adapted to the harsh climate, including Mountain Goat, Gyrfalcon, White-tailed and Willow Ptarmigan, Water Pipit and Rosy Finch. Mule Deer, Rocky Mountain Elk, Stone Sheep, Grizzly Bear and Black Bear are common in lush meadow habitats and the stunted spruce groves known as krummholz. Throughout the middle and upper elevations ungulates such as Mountain Goat, Moose, Caribou and Mule Deer are common. Rocky Mountain Elk, Bighorn Sheep, White-tailed Deer and Stone Sheep are found less frequently. Grizzly Bear and Black Bear are the most common large mammals. The conifer forests are also important habitat for fur-bearers such as Marten, Fisher, Red Squirrel and Wolverine and a diverse collection of birds that feed on conifer seeds, bark insects and small mammals. Common birds include Pileated Woodpecker, Northern Flicker, Clark's Nutcracker and
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