Lecture_Notes_100709b

Lecture_Notes_100709b - Lecture Note 10/7/2009

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SPONTANEITY, ENTROPY, AND FREE ENERGY Zumdahl Chapter 16
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Definitions y Spontaneous Process – occurs without outside intervention, says nothing about rate y Thermodynamics – the study of energy flow, we will use it to predict if a process will occur y 1 st Law of Thermodynamics – the energy of the universe is constant; energy can neither be created nor destroyed
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Thermodynamics vs Kinetics y Kinetics tells us how fast something can occur and to what extent, while thermodynamics tells us the difference in the initial and final states and under what conditions the reaction occurs in the direction written.
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Entropy y Entropy – (S) a measure of the molecular randomness or disorder; the driving force for a spontaneous process is an increase in entropy
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Entropy
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Which of the following has higher entropy, more disorder? Solid L iq u id Gas 2% 98% 0% 1. Solid 2. Liquid 3. Gas
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2 nd Law of Thermodynamics y 2 nd Law of Thermodynamics – in a spontaneous process there is always an increase in the entropy of
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Lecture_Notes_100709b - Lecture Note 10/7/2009

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