examone09review - Exam 1 Review A lot of memorization Ch...

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Exam 1 Review A lot of memorization Ch 35:Plant Structure, Growth, Development 3 Organs: Roots, Stems Leaves Describe each Root Anchors plant, absorbs minerals and water, storage, erosion prevention Stem Responsible for the growth of the plant both laterally and vertically above the surface Leaf Main photosynthetic organ of vascular plants What tissue comes from each Root Formed by the Hypocotyl in angiosperms Tap Root – main ventricle root, grows deep to access water, gives rise to lateral roots (branch) Root Hairs – extension of root epidermal cells to increase the surface area for absorption, short lived, replaced Fibrous Root System – embryonic root dies (no tap root) and many small roots grow from stem, case of adventitious growth. Still develops lateral roots, do not grow deeply Stem Consists of alternating nodes and internodes Nodes – point at which leaves are attached Internodes – stem segments between nodes Auxiliary Bud – structure that can form a lateral shoot Apical (Terminal) Bud – located at shoot tip, responsible for elongation of shoot Leaves Composed of flattened blade and petiole Veins – vascular tissue of leaves [Monocots have parallel – Eudicots have branching veins] Leaf Morphology used to identify plants Simple leaf – single undivided blade Compound leaf – Multiple leaflets Doubly Compound Leaf – each leaf is divided into smaller leaflets Types of modifications from each Root Modifications Maize: Prop roots – support top heavy plants Strangler Fig: “Strangling” Aerial roots Ceiba Tree: Buttress roots – aerial roots support tropical trees Mangroves: Pneumatophores – air roots, can obtain oxygen Stem Modification Iris: Rhizomes – horizontal shoot grows just below surface Onion: Bulb – vertical underground shoots, stores food Strawberry plant: Stolons – horizontal shoots (runners) grow along ground, enable asexual reproduction Potatoes: Tubers – enlarged ends of rhizomes or stolons, stores food Leaf Modification Pea Plant: Tendrils – cling to support structures Cacti: Spines – Protection (photosynthesis carried out by stem) Bracts – often mistaken for petals attract pollinators to aid repro. Adventitious Plantlets – fall off leaf and take root in the soil 3 Tissues: Dermal, vascular, ground Describe each
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Dermal Tissue Protective covering against physical damage, water loss , and pathogens Vascular Tissue Carries out long distance transport of minerals between roots and shoots Ground Tissue Tissues that are neither dermal or vascular Includes cells specialized for photosynthesis, storage, and support What cells come from each Dermal Tissue Nonwoody plants – dermal system is epidermis Epidermis – layer of tightly packed cells Cuticle – waxy coating on surface of epidermis prevents water loss
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examone09review - Exam 1 Review A lot of memorization Ch...

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