examonenotes - Chapter 35 Plant Structure and Growth I....

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Chapter 35 Plant Structure and Growth I. Plants – Pillars of terrestrial ecosystems A. Provide O2 that supports cell respiration B. Indirect and direct source of food C. Lumber is a combination of cellulose and lignin from plants (cellulose is the most abundant organic compound) D. Fossil fuels – composed of compressed cellulose (gas) E. Fabric F. Paper G. Pharmaceuticals – approximately ¼ to ½ of all prescription medications are derived from plants II. Botany – the oldest branch of science is the study of plants. Began almost as soon as human beings tried to determine which foods are toxic and what is the sturdiest building material. A. Applied Research – Promotes human benefit 1. Improving crop yield 2. Pest and fungal resilient forms (wheatrust) 3. Chemical control (herbicide and insectide) B. Basic Research – No direct human benefit 1. Arabidopis – genetic control 2. Responses to the environment – stomata of plants will close on a hot dry day 3. Allelopathy – plant warfare (chemical) 4. Paleobotany – study of fossil plants (coal balls with fossilized plants) III. Structure and Function Correlated A. Plants and animals face similar problems 1. Transport a) Plants with xylem (water conduction downward) phloem (food sucrose=glucose + fructose upward) b) Animals with circulation 2. Gas exchange – requires invaginated gas exchange surface with most membranes. Must be protected thus it cannot be exposed to the air a) Plants need CO2 for photosynthesis (leaf contains exchange surface) b) Animals need O2 for respiration (lungs are the exchange surface) 3. Nutrition a) Plants are autotrophic they produce their own food b) Animals are heterotrophic they must obtain their food from the environment 4. Waste Handling a) Plants – No excretory system must recycle. Nitrogen recycled. CO2 used. O2 released through gas exchange membranes. My produce secondary compounds which are stored these can be toxic for better survival chances. b) Animals – No Nitrogen recycling. CO2 and NH2 builds urea which is water soluble CO2 exhaled. B. Root and Shoot System 1. Plant morphology – fig 35.2 – the overall shape or form of plants (external)
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2. Plant anatomy - the internal structure of plants 3. Angiosperms – fig 35.1 – flowering plants a) Monocots 1) Cotyledons – 1 (seed leaf) 2) Veins – Parallel (on the leaf) 3) Stems – Scattered vascular bundle 4) Roots – fibrous 5) Flowers – contain 3 parts 6) Examples – tulip, iris, grass b) Eudicots 1) Cotyledons – 2 2) Veins – Net veined 3) Arranged in circle or ring 4) Roots – Tap root which includes one major branch with minor extensions 5) Flowers – contain 4 or 5 parts 6) Examples – snapdragon, sunflower 4. Root System – underground extent varies based on genetics and environment a) Function 1) Anchorage 2) Absorption of H2O and minerals 3) Conduction 4) Storage of starch (carbohydrates) b) Tap Root – Large vertical axis ex: carrot and dandelion c) Fibrous Roots – Very thin roots without a major axis, excellent soil
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examonenotes - Chapter 35 Plant Structure and Growth I....

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