final review - Chapter 35 Nonvascular plants mosses...

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Chapter 35 Nonvascular plants – mosses Seedless vascular – ferns Gymnosperms – pines Angiosperms – flowering plants Monocots – one cotyledon Eudicots – true dicots I. Three basic Plant Organs a. Structure of Plants 1. Stems i. Parts of the Stem a. Organ consisting of an alternating system of nodes and internodes i. Nodes – points at which leaves are attached ii. Internodes – stem segments between nods b. Auxiliary Bud – structure that can form a lateral shoot – branch c. Apical (terminal) bud – located at shoot tip, elongation of a young shoot ii. Apical Dominance a. Axillary Bud growth inhibited by apical bud. b. Axillary buds – dormant (not growing) in young shoots i. Concentrating resources on elongation and increasing plants exposure to light c. Animal eats apical bed or shading blocks light axillary bud begins to grow lateral shoots i. Pruning trees, shrubs make them thicker iii. Modified Stems a. Reasons for modification i. Food Storage ii. Asexual reproduction iii. Examples 1. Rhizomes – Iris – Horizontal shoot grows just below surface, vertical shoots emerge 2. Bulbs – Onion – Vertical underground shoots, enlarged bases of leaves that store food 3. Stolons – strawberry plants – Horizontal shoots, runners, grow along surface enabling plant to reproduce asexually 4. Tubers – potatoes – enlarged ends of rhizomes or stolons, specialized for storing food 2. Roots i. Functions of Roots a. Anchors the plant to the soil b. Absorbs minerals and water c. Storage ii. Types of roots a. Tap Root i. One main vertical root ii. Develops from embryonic root iii. Gives rise to lateral branch roots iv. Grow deep into ground to access water
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v. Store sugar and starches iii. Fibrous Root System a. Embryonic root dies, many small roots grow from the stem b. Each small root forms its own lateral roots c. Do not grow deeply helps prevent erosion d. Adventitious (adventicus extraneous) – plant organ growing in an unusual location e. Found in seedless vascular plants, monocots – Grasses iv. Modified Roots a. Prop roots – support tall, top-heavy plants i. Example: Maize b. “Strangling” aerial roots i. Example: Strangler Fig c. Buttress roots – aerial roots support tall tropical trees d. Pneumatophores – air roots, produced my mangroves, roots can obtain oxygen i. Example: Mangroves 3. Leaves i. Function a. Main photosynthetic organ of most vascular plants ii. Parts a. Composed of flattened blade and Petiole i. Petiole – joins leaf to the stem at the node 1. Grasses and other monocots lack petioles 2. Base of the leaf forms a sheath that envelops the stem b. Veins – vascular tissue of leaves i. Monocots have parallel veins ii. Eudicots have branching veins iii. Leaf Morphology – the shape of leaves a. Used to Identify plants i. Simple Leaf – single undivided blade ii. Compound Leaf – multiple leaflets branching off the petiole iii. Doubly compound leaf – each leaflet is divided into smaller leaflets iv. Leaf Modifications
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final review - Chapter 35 Nonvascular plants mosses...

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