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Unformatted text preview: 1 Navigation & Orientation Lecture 40 3 December 2008 & & Current size - ! Wonderful beginner pet tarantula LSR1 or jcd49, 4121 Comstock Hall c Cooperation & Conflict concepts & terms aggressive mimicry alarm call alarm pheromone altruism angler fish Beldings ground squirrel C < r B cleaner fish client fish coefficient of relatedness direct fitness game theory Hamiltons rule Hanuman langur haplo-diploid sex determination helpers at the nest Hydra inclusive fitness infanticide kin selection prisoners dilemma reciprocal altruism scent marking Scrub jay selfish herd vigilance water strider Figure 3: Mean time (+/- one standard deviation) that each species of fish spent in each group References Bonabeau, E., & Dagorn,L. (19 5). Pos ible universality in the size distribution of fish scho ls. Physics Review , E(51), R52 0-R52 3. Grif iths, S.W., & Magur an, A.E. (19 7). Scho ling preferences for familiar fish vary with group size in a wild gup y population. Proce dings: Biological Sciences , 264 (1381), 547-5 1. Hester, L.L., & Chen K.C. (20 9). Investigative Biology A Laboratory Text (20 8-20 9). Plymouth: Hayden-McNeil Publishing. Neil, S.R. St J., & Cul en, J.M. (1974). Experiments on whether scho ling by their prey af ects the hunting behaviour of cephalopods and fish predators. Journal of Zo logy, London 172, 549-569. Snekser, J.L., & McRobert, S.P., & Murphy, C.E., & Clotfelter, E.D. (20 6). Ag regation behavior in wildtype and transgenic zebra fish. Ethology , 1 2(2), 181-187. Wil is, J. (20 8). Simulation model of universal law of scho l size distribution ap lied to southern bluefin tuna ( Thun us mac oyi ) in the Great Australian Bight. Ecological Model ing , 213, 3 -4 . Figure 2: Schooling of fish species Serpae tetras Ryan Arams, Ileana Betancourt, Steven Gu, and Beth Leopold Figure 1: Experimental Fish Tank (Chen & Hester, 2009, P. 44) Results The bar graph below represents the mean time that each species of fish spent in each group. The bar lines that extend from each bar represent the mean and one standard deviation from the mean in either direction. For each species, seven fish were used. The Wilcoxon Rank Sign Test ( -level: 0.05, n=7) did not reject the hypothesis that Puntius tetrazona prefer to school in larger fish concentrations, but the test did reject that same hypothesis for Serpae tetras and Danio rerio ....
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