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L16protistlecture - ProtistDiversity Morphology Diatoms...

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1 Protists – the small eukaryotes Diatoms Pond water Golden Algae A foram Vampyrella Morphology Getting Energy Heterotrophs, Mixotrophs, Autotrophs Ingestion, Absorption, Filter‐feeding, Photosynthesis Movement? Sessile, Drifting, Amoeboid, Swimming Reproduction Habitat Protist Diversity Where we are going What are protists? How do we study them? How do biologists study and depict evolutionary relationships? How has our understanding of protist diversity changed? 5 Protist Supergroups Fungi EUKARYA Trypanosomes Green algae Land plants Red algae Forams Ciliates Dinoflagellates Diatoms Animals Amoebas Cellular slime molds Leishmania Euglena Green nonsulfur bacteria Thermophiles Halophiles Methanobacterium Sulfolobus ARCHAEA COMMON ANCESTOR OF ALL LIFE BACTERIA (Plastids, including chloroplasts) Green sulfur bacteria (Mitochondrion) Cyanobacteria Chlamydia Spirochetes
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2 Taxon F Sister taxa Node Most recent common ancestor Taxon E Taxon D Taxon C Taxon B Taxon A Polytomy Clade – a group of species that includes an ancestral species and all its descendants Taxon – a named taxonomic unit at any given level of classification TAXA Lancelet (outgroup) Lamprey Salamander Leopard Turtle Tuna Vertebral column (backbone) Hinged jaws Four walking legs Amniotic (shelled) egg CHARACTERS Hair (a) Character table Hair Hinged jaws Vertebral column Four walking legs Amniotic egg (b) Phylogenetic tree Salamander Leopard Turtle Lamprey Tuna Lancelet (outgroup) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Species Canis lupus Panther apardus Taxidea taxus Lutra lutra Canis latrans Order Family Genus Carnivora Felidae Mustelidae Canidae Canis Lutra Taxidea Panthera Ideally, classification reflects the evolutionary history of a group (phylogeny) … but this is not always the case F Polyphyletic group
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