Social Problems Exam Notes

Social Problems Exam Notes - C hapter 9 Work and...

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Chapter 9 – Work and Unemployment Alienation – Marx noted that industrialization and the division of labour have separated the worker from the work process, from the object he or she produces, and from his or her fellow workers. This experience involves feelings of powerlessness, meaninglessness, normlessness, estrangement, and social isolation in the workplace Bureaucracy – A large, complex organization employing highly specialized workers who work within the context of what Max Weber called a legal-rational authority structure Capitalism – the economic system in which private individuals or corporate groups own the means of production and distribution. Capitalists invest capital to produce goods and services, which they sell for profit in a competitive free market Discouraged workers – those people who are not actively seeking employment. Specifically, they are thought to have turned their backs on the traditional work system and to have abandoned any desire to be gainfully employed. Most discouraged workers are qualified to work only within the secondary job market. They consist disproportionately of women and racial minorities Discriminatory unemployment – unemployment resulting from discrimination against particular groups, such as ethnic minorities and women Social capital – some people have more education, income, and social status; often theses people have larger networks of acquaintances with more varied people among them. Sociologists call having larger, more varied, and more powerful networks ‘having greater social capital’. Socialism – an alternative economic and political ideology that flourished in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. It favors the public ownership of the means of production and distribution, and the investment of public capital in producing goods and services Structural unemployment –results from social and economic factors that affect workers equally across all groups, such as corporate downsizing, capital flight (caused by corporate mergers and the move of operations of another geographic region – ‘runaway plants’), and the automation of work processes (that is, the replacement of human labour with mechanical equipment).
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Work change in past half century (pages 359-360) Flexible, family friendly, women-friendly, work at home Flextime - allows employees to decide when they begin and end the workday Comparative economic systems: SOCIALISM Benefits societal needs over the individual (co- operation) defended by marxists Argues social inequalities were established based on an individual’s ability to purchase and control production Imbalance in social structures, institutions, economic organizations Modern economies influenced by socialist ideas in distribution of wealth and public investment Proposes sharing economic surplus among the workers Socialist beliefs about CAPITALISM Contains internal contradictions based on the market structure Bourgeoisie exploits the labour of working class while
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This note was uploaded on 10/14/2009 for the course SOCI soci210 taught by Professor Hinrichs during the Winter '08 term at McGill.

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Social Problems Exam Notes - C hapter 9 Work and...

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