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fixed Chapter_06 - chapter 6 Feedback, Reinforcement, and...

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6 Feedback, Reinforcement, and Intrinsic Motivation chapter
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Understanding Feedback and Reinforcement What is reinforcement? The use of rewards and punishment that increase or decrease the likelihood of a similar response occurring in the future
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Principles of Reinforcement If doing something results in a good consequence (such as being rewarded), people tend to repeat the behavior to achieve additional positive reinforcement. If doing something results in an unpleasant consequence (such as being punished), people tend not to repeat the behavior to avoid more negative consequences.
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Principles of Reinforcement Why principles of reinforcement are complex People react differently to the same reinforcement. People are unable to repeat desirable behaviors. People receive different reinforcers in different situations.
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Approaches to Influencing Behavior Positive approach Focuses on rewarding appropriate behavior, which increases the likelihood of desirable responses occurring in the future Negative approach Focuses on punishing undesirable behaviors, which should lead to future redirection of these inappropriate behaviors
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Target Approach to Creating a Positive Motivational Climate Create a mastery-oriented climate by manipulating the following environmental conditions: T asks A uthority R ewards G roupings E valuation T iming
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Approaches to Influencing Behavior Most coaches and instructors combine positive and negative approaches. Sport psychologists agree that the predominant approach with physical activity and sport participants should be positive because the negative approach often instills fear in participants.
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Positive Reinforcement Principles 1. Choose effective reinforcers (e.g., social, material, activity, special outings, intrinsic and extrinsic). 2. Choose timing or schedule of reinforcement. Early learning—continuous and immediate reinforcement desirable Learned skill—intermittent and immediate reinforcement desirable 1. Reward appropriate behaviors—choose the proper behaviors to reward. (continued)
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Positive Reinforcement Principles (continued) 1. Shape or reinforce successful approximations of difficult behaviors. 2. Reward performance as well as outcome. 3. Reward effort. 4. Reward emotional and social skill.
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Providing Performance Feedback Provide knowledge of results (feedback regarding the correctness of an action). Provide sincere and contingent feedback. Provide motivational and instructional feedback. Use varied types of feedback—verbal praise, facial expressions, and pats on the back.
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Approaches to Motivation Focus on criticism. Focus on criticism with sarcasm.
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fixed Chapter_06 - chapter 6 Feedback, Reinforcement, and...

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