# ch01 - Chapter One 1.1 The word statistics has the...

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Chapter One 1.1 The word ‘statistics’ has the following two meanings: i. First, it refers to numerical facts such as the ages of persons, incomes of families, etc. ii. Second, it refers to the field of study. It provides us with techniques that help us to collect, analyze, present, and interpret data and to make decisions. 1.3 Population: All elements whose characteristics are being studied. Sample: A portion of the population selected for a study. Representative sample: A sample that possesses the characteristics of the population as closely as possible. Random sample: A sample drawn in such a way that each element of the population has some chance of being included in the sample. Sampling with replacement: A sampling procedure in which the item selected at each selection is put back in the population before the next item is drawn. Sampling without replacement: A sampling procedure in which the item selected at each selection is not replaced in the population. 1.5 A census is a survey that includes all members of the population. A survey based on a portion of the population is called a sample survey. A sample survey is preferred over a census for the following reasons: i. Conducting a census is very expensive because the size of the population is usually very large. ii. Conducting a census is very time consuming. 1

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Chapter One iii. In many cases it is almost impossible to identify every member of the target population. 1.7 a. Population b. Sample c. Population d. Sample e. Population 1.9 Member: Each city included in the table. Variable: Number of dog bites reported. Measurement: Dog bites in a specific city. For example, Oakdale’s 12 dog bites is a measurement. Data set: Collection of dog bite numbers for the six cities listed in the table. 1.11 a. Dog Bites b. Six observations c. Six elements (cities) 1.13 a. Quantitative variable: A variable that can assume numerical values. b. Qualitative variable: A variable that cannot be measured numerically but can be divided into different categories. c. Discrete variable: A variable whose values are countable. d. Continuous variable: A variable that can assume any value over a certain interval or intervals.
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ch01 - Chapter One 1.1 The word statistics has the...

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