notes bio midterm 1

notes bio midterm 1 - I. What is Biology i. Scientific...

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I. What is Biology i. Scientific study of living things ii. Living organisms have a common ancestor 1. Most living organisms: a. Consist of one or more cells b. Contain genetic information (inheritance) c. Use genetic information to reproduce themselves d. Are genetically related and have evolved e. Can convert molecules obtained from their environment into new biological molecules f. Can extract energy from the environment and use it to do biological work g. Can regulate their internal environment (homeostasis) b. Living organisms Consists of cells i. Some organisms are unicellular, consisting of a single cell that carries out all the functions of life ii. Some are multicellular, made up of a number of cells that are specialized for different functions. iii. Microscope invented by Zaccharias and Hans janssen. iv. Microscope improved by Antony van Leeuwenhoek and Robert Hooke 1. A. L. discovered that drops of pond water teemed with single-celled organisms 2. Looked at cork and said tissues were made up of repeated units called cells. v. Cell Theory: 1. Cells are the basic structural and physiological units of all living organisms 2. Cells are both distinct entities and building blocks of more complex organisms 3. All cells come from preexisting cells 4. All cells are similar in chemical composition 5. Most of the chemical reactions of life occur within cells 6. Complete sets of genetic information are replicated and passed on during cell division c. The diversity of life is due to evolution by natural selection i. Species 1. A group of organisms that look alike 2. Can breed with each other
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ii. Natural Selection 1. Can choose specific phenotype 2. Only a small increase in the chance to survive and reproduce would be favored and would spread in the population iii. Adaptations 1. Structural 2. Physiological 3. Behavioral 4. Enhance an organism’s chance of survival and reproduction d. Biological information is contained in genetic language common to all organisms i. Genome 1. Cell’s instruction or blueprints for existence 2. DNA a. Long sequences of nucleotides b. Specific sections are called Genes c. Used to code for Proteins i. Make up much of an organism’s structure and are the molecules that govern the chemical reactions within cells ii. Book analogy 1. Nucleotides – letters 2. Proteins- sentences 3. Combinations of proteins that are structures and control process- paragraphs 4. Structures and processes that are organized into different systems with specific tasks- chapters 5. Complete book- organism 6. Natural selection- author and editor iii. Cells 1. Each cell has all the genome for the organism 2. Each cell expresses a different part of the genome 3. Alteration of genes are mutations a. Occur spontaneously
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b. Most are deleterious but occasionally a change in the properties of a protein alters its function in a way that improves the functioning of the organisms under the environmental conditions it encounters c. Are the root of evolution
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notes bio midterm 1 - I. What is Biology i. Scientific...

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