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11-10-08 Mutations mutagenesis and carcinogens

11-10-08 Mutations mutagenesis and carcinogens - Mutations...

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11-10-08 Mutations, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis I. How do different alleles arise a. Mutations: heritable changes in genes i. Allele- form of a gene; specific site on DNA ii. Occur in DNA iii. But they effect proteins iv. Point mutations 1. Structural genes a. Silent b. Mis-sense c. Nonsense d. Frameshift e. Intron/exon boundaries 2. Control genes a. Promoter/enhancer sequences b. Transcription factors b. Silent Mutations i. Mutation at position 12 in DNA: A instead of C 1. No result in amino acid sequence c. MIssense i. A base change that gives a codon for a different amino acid is a mis-sense mutation. ii. Amino acid change at position 5 bal instead of asp d. Nonsense mutation i. Mutation that makes the protein chain stop ii. Type of point mutation e. Frame-shift mutation
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i. Addition or deletion of a base (or 2 bases) produces a frame shift mutation
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